Posts Tagged ‘Politics’

Welcome to North Korea

May 5, 2012 1 comment

North Korea 2011 Parade

North Korea Military Parade 15/4/12

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk[1]
Flag Emblem
Motto: 강성대국
(English: Powerful and Prosperous Nation)

Play sound
The National Anthem of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (Converted MIDI).ogg

(tr.: “Aegukka“)
(English: “The Patriotic Song”)

(and largest city)
39°2′N 125°45′E
Official language(s) Korean
Official scripts Chosŏn’gŭl
Ethnic groups Korean
Demonym North Korean,Korean
Government Juche unitarysingle-party state
 – First Chairman of the Defence Commission[a] Kim Jong-un
 – First Secretary of the Workers’ Party Kim Jong-un
 – Supreme Commander of the People’s Army Kim Jong-un[b]
 – Chairman of the Presidium of Assembly Kim Yong-nam[c]
 – Premier Choe Yong-rim
Legislature Supreme People’s Assembly
 – Independence declared March 1, 1919
 – Liberation August 15, 1945
 – Formal declaration September 9, 1948
 – Total 120,540 km2 (98th)
46,528 sq mi
 – Water (%) 4.87
 – 2011 estimate 24,051,218[2] (51st)
 – 2011 census 25,000,000[3]
 – Density 198.3/km2
513.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011[4] estimate
 – Total $45 billion
 – Per capita $2,400
GDP (nominal) 2011[5] estimate
 – Total $32.7 billion
 – Per capita $1,800[6]
HDI (2011) 0.618 (not rated)
Currency North Korean won(₩) (KPW)
Time zone Korea Standard Time (UTC+9)
Date formats yy, yyyy년 mm월 dd일
yy, yyyy/mm/dd (CE–1911CE)
Drives on the right
ISO 3166 code KP
Internet TLD .kp
Calling code 850
^ a. The DPRK Constitution defines the Chairman of the NDC as the “supreme leader” of the DPRK.
^ b. Kim-Jong-un, described as “Supreme Leader of the party, state and army” by North Korean state media on December 29, 2011,[7] was named Supreme Commander of the KPA on December 30, 2011 but has not yet succeeded to his father as Chairman of the NDC and General Secretary of the WPK.[8]
^ c. Kim Yong-nam is the “head of state for foreign affairs”. The position of president (formerly head of state) was written out of the constitution in 1998, andKim Il-sung (who died in 1994) was given the appellationEternal President in its preamble.
This article contains Koreantext. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbolsinstead of Hangul or Hanja.

Coordinates40°00′N 127°00′ENorth Korea (About this sound listen), officially the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRKChosŏn’gŭl: 조선민주주의인민공화국), is a country in East Asia, occupying the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Pyongyang. The Korean Demilitarized Zone serves as the buffer zone between North Korea and South Korea. The Amnok, or Yalu, and the Tumen rivers form the border between North Korea and China. A section of the Tumen River in the far northeast is the border with Russia.

The peninsula was governed by the Korean Empire until it was annexed by Japan after the Russo-Japanese War in 1910. It was divided into Soviet- and American-occupied zones in 1945, after the end of World War II. North Korea refused to participate in a United Nations–supervised election held in the south in 1948, which led to the creation of separate Korean governments for the two occupation zones. North and South Korea each claimed sovereignty over the whole Korean Peninsula, which led to the Korean War of 1950. The Armistice Agreement of 1953 ended the fighting; but the two countries are officially still at war against each other, for a peace treaty was never signed.[9] Both states were accepted into the United Nations in 1991.[10]

North Korea is a single-party state under a united front led by the Korean Workers’ Party (KWP).[11][12][13][14] The country’s government follows the Juche ideology of self-reliance, developed by the country’s first and only PresidentKim Il-sung. After his death, Kim Il-sung was declared the country’s Eternal PresidentJuche became the official state ideology when the country adopted a new constitution in 1972,[15]though Kim Il-sung had been using it to form policy since at least as early as 1955.[16] After the collapse of the Soviet Union and a series of natural disasters, a famine occurred, causing the death of 900,000 to 2 million people.[17] Facing these circumstances, leader Kim Jong-Il adopted Songun, or a “military-first” policy in order to strengthen the country and its government.[18]

Many outside organizations describe North Korea as a totalitariansingle-party Stalinist dictatorship[12][13][19][20][21] with an elaborate cult of personality around the Kim family and one of the lowest-rankinghuman rights records of any country.[22] The North Korean government denies this.[23] North Korea is one of the most militarized nations,[24][25] with a total of 9,495,000 active, reserve, and paramilitarypersonnel. It is a nuclear-weapons state and has an active space program.[26]




Main article: History of North Korea

Before the division

Main article: History of Korea

Jikji, the first known book printed with movable metal type in 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris.

Korean history begins with the founding of Jo-seon (often known as “Gojoseon” to prevent confusion with another dynasty founded in the 14th century; the prefix Go- means ‘old’ or ‘earlier’) in 2333 BC byDangun, according to Korean foundation mythology.[27] Gojoseon expanded until it controlled northern Korean Peninsula and some parts of Manchuria. After many conflicts with the Chinese Han Dynasty, Gojoseon disintegrated, leading to the Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea period.

In the early centuries of the Common Era, BuyeoOkjeoDongye, and the Samhan confederacy occupied the peninsula and southern Manchuria. Of the various states, GoguryeoBaekje, and Silla grew to control the peninsula as Three Kingdoms of Korea. The unification of the Three Kingdoms by Silla in 676 led to the North South States Period, in which much of the Korean Peninsula was controlled by Unified Silla, while Balhae succeeded the northern parts of Goguryeo.

In Unified Silla, poetry and art was encouraged, and Buddhist culture thrived. Relationships between Korea and China remained relatively peaceful during this time. However, Unified Silla weakened under internal strife, and surrendered to Goryeo in 935. Balhae, Silla’s neighbor to the north, was formed as a successor state to Goguryeo. During its height, Balhae controlled most of Manchuria and parts of Russian Far East. It fell to the Khitan in 926.

The peninsula was united by Emperor Taejo of Goryeo in 936. Like Silla, Goryeo was a highly cultural state and created the Jikji in 1377, using the world’s oldest movable metal type printing press.[28] TheMongol invasions in the 13th century greatly weakened Goryeo. After nearly 30 years of war, Goryeo continued to rule Korea, though as a tributary ally to the Mongols. After the Mongol Empire collapsed, severe political strife followed and the Goryeo Dynasty was replaced by the Joseon Dynasty in 1388 following a rebellion by General Yi Seong-gye.

Gyeongbok Palace is the largest of theFive Grand Palaces built during the Joseon Dynasty.

King Taejo declared the new name of Korea as “Joseon” in reference to Gojoseon, and moved the capital to Seoul. The first 200 years of the Joseon Dynasty were marked by relative peace and saw the creation of Hangul by King Sejong the Great in the 14th century and the rise in influence of Confucianism in the country.

Between 1592 and 1598, the Japanese invaded KoreaToyotomi Hideyoshi led the forces and tried to invade the Asian continent through Korea, but was eventually repelled by the Righteous army and assistance from Ming Dynasty China. This war also saw the rise of Admiral Yi Sun-sin and his renowned “turtle ship“. In the 1620s and 1630s, Joseon suffered from invasions by the Manchu who eventually conquered all of China.

After another series of wars against Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. King Yeongjo and King Jeongjo particularly led a new renaissance of the Joseon Dynasty.

However, the latter years of the Joseon Dynasty were marked by a dependence on China for external affairs and isolation from the outside world. During the 19th century, Korea’s isolationist policy earned it the name the “Hermit Kingdom“. The Joseon Dynasty tried to protect itself against Western imperialism, but was eventually forced to open trade. After the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, Korea was occupied by Japan (1910–1945).

Division of Korea

Main article: Division of Korea

North Korean war monument in Pyongyang.

In the aftermath of the Japanese occupation of Korea which ended with Japan’s defeat in World War II in 1945, Korea was divided at the 38th parallel in accordance with a United Nations arrangement, to be administered by the Soviet Union in the north and the United States in the south. The history of North Korea formally begins with the establishment of the Democratic People’s Republic in 1948.

In August 1945, the Soviet Army established a Soviet Civil Authority to rule the northern portion of the Korean Peninsula until a domestic regime, friendly to the USSR, could be established. This became governed by the Provisional People’s Committee for North Korea through 1948. After the Soviet forces’ departure in 1948, the main agenda in the following years was unification of Korea until the consolidation of Syngman Rhee regime in the South with American military support and the suppression of the October 1948 insurrection ended hopes that the country could be reunified by way of Communist revolution in the South. In 1949, a military intervention into South Korea was considered by Kim Il-sung, but failed to receive support from the Soviet Union, which had played a key role in the establishment of the country.[29]

The withdrawal of most United States forces from the South in June dramatically weakened the Southern regime and encouraged Kim Il-sung to rethink an invasion plan against the South.[29] The idea itself was first rejected by Joseph Stalin but with the development of Soviet nuclear weapons, Mao Zedong‘s victory in China and the Chinese indication that it would send troops and other support to North Korea, Stalin approved an invasion which led to the Korean War.[30]

Korean War

Main article: Korean War

Korean War Armistice Agreement

After Korea was divided by the UN, the two Korean powers both tried to control the whole Korea under their respective governments. This led to escalating border conflicts on the 38th parallel and attempts to negotiate elections for the whole of Korea.[31] These attempts ended when the military of North Korea invaded the South on June 25, 1950, leading to a full-scale civil war. With endorsement from the United Nations, countries allied with the United States intervened on behalf of South Korea. After rapid advances in a South Korean counterattack, North-allied Chinese forces intervened on behalf of North Korea, shifting the balance of the war. Fighting ended on July 27, 1953, with an armistice that approximately restored the original boundaries between North and South Korea. More than 2 million civilians and soldiers were killed in the war.

Although some have referred to the conflict as a civil war, other important factors were involved.[32] The Korean War was also the first armed confrontation of the Cold War and set the standard for many later conflicts. It created the idea of a proxy war, where the two superpowers would fight in another country, forcing the people in that country to suffer most of the destruction and death involved in a war between such large nations. The superpowers avoided descending into an all-out war against one another, as well as the mutual use of nuclear weapons. It also expanded the Cold War, which to that point had mostly been concerned with Europe. A heavily guarded demilitarized zone on the 38th parallel still divides the peninsula, and an anti-Communist and anti-North Korea sentiment remains in South Korea.

Since the Armistice in 1953, relations between the North Korean government and South Korea, the European UnionCanada, the United States, and Japan have remained tense, and hostile incidents occur often.[33][page needed] North and South Korea signed the June 15th North-South Joint Declaration in 2000, in which they promised to seek peaceful reunification.[34] On October 4, 2007, the leaders of North and South Korea pledged to hold summit talks to officially declare the war over and reaffirmed the principle of mutual non-aggression.[35]

Late 20th century

DPRK soldier pointing to the DMZ

The relative peace between the south and the north was interrupted by border skirmishes and assassination attempts. The North failed in several assassination attempts on South Korean leaders, most notably in 1968, 1974 and the Rangoon bombing in 1983; tunnels were frequently found under the DMZ and war nearly broke out over the Axe Murder Incident at Panmunjeom in 1976.[36] In 1973, extremely secret, high-level contacts began to be conducted through the offices of the Red Cross, but ended after the Panmunjeom incident with little progress having been made and the idea that the two Koreas would join international organisations separately.[37]

In the late 1990s, with the South having transitioned to liberal democracy, the success of the Nordpolitik policy, and power in the North having been taken up by Kim Il-sung’s son Kim Jong-il, the two nations began to engage publicly for the first time, with the South declaring its Sunshine Policy.[38][39]

21st century

Globe icon.
The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page(November 2010)

In 2002, United States president George W. Bush labeled North Korea part of an “axis of evil” and an “outpost of tyranny“. The highest-level contact the government has had with the United States was with U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, who made a visit to Pyongyang in 2000,[40] but the two countries do not have formal diplomatic relations.[5] By 2006, approximately 37,000 American soldiers remained in South Korea, although by June 2009 this number had fallen to around 30,000.[41][42] Kim Jong-il privately stated his acceptance of U.S. troops on the peninsula, even after a possible reunification.[43] Publicly, North Korea strongly demands the removal of American troops from Korea.[43]

On June 13, 2009, the Associated Press reported that in response to new UN sanctions, North Korea declared it would progress with its uranium enrichment program. This marked the first time the DPRK has publicly acknowledged that it is conducting a uranium enrichment program.[44] In August 2009, former US president Bill Clinton met with Kim Jong-il to secure the release of two US journalists, who had been sentenced for entering the country illegally.[45] Current U.S. President Barack Obama‘s position towards North Korea has been to resist making deals with North Korea for the sake of defusing tension, a policy known as “strategic patience.”[46]

On November 23, 2010, North Korea fired about 170 rounds of artillery on Yeonpyeong Island and the surrounding waters near the Yellow Sea border, with some 90 shells landing on the island. The attack resulted in the deaths of two marines and two civilians on the South Korean side, and fifteen marines and at least three civilians wounded.[47] The South fired back 80 shells, with unknown effects. North Korean news sources alleged that the North Korean actions, described as “a prompt and powerful physical strike”, were in response to provocation from South Korea that had held an artillery exercise in the disputed waters south of the island.[48]

On the 17th of December 2011 the Supreme Leader of North KoreaKim Jong-il died from a heart attack.[49] His death was reported by the Korean Central News Agency around 08:30 local time with the newscaster announcing his youngest son Kim Jong-un as his successor.

The announcement placed South Korean and United States troops on high alert, with many politicians from the global community stating that Kim’s death leaves a great deal of uncertainty in the country’s future.[49] North Korea was put into a state of semi-alert, with foreigners put under suspicion and asked to leave.[50]


Lake Ch’ŏnji at Mount Paektu, North Korea’s highest point

North Korea occupies the northern portion of the Korean Peninsula, lying between latitudes 37° and 43°N, and longitudes 124° and 131°E. It covers an area of 120,540 square kilometres (46,541 sq mi). North Korea shares land borders with China and Russia to the north, and borders South Korea along the Korean Demilitarized Zone. To its west are the Yellow Sea and Korea Bay, and to its east lies Japan across theSea of Japan (East Sea of Korea). The highest point in North Korea is Paektu-san Mountain at 2,744 metres (9,003 ft). The longest river is the Amnok River which flows for 790 kilometres (491 mi).[51] The capital and largest city is Pyongyang; other major cities include Kaesong in the south, Sinuiju in the northwest, Wonsan and Hamhung in the east and Chongjin in the northeast.


Topography of North Korea

Further information: Korean Peninsula

Early European visitors to Korea remarked that the country resembled “a sea in a heavy gale” because of the many successive mountain ranges that crisscross the peninsula.[52] Some 80% of North Korea is composed of mountains and uplands, separated by deep and narrow valleys, with all of the peninsula’s mountains with elevations of 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) or more located in North Korea. The coastal plains are wide in the west and discontinuous in the east. A great majority of the population lives in the plains and lowlands.

The highest point in North Korea is Baekdu Mountain which is a volcanic mountain near the Chinese border with basalt lava plateau with elevations between 1,400 and 2,000 metres (4,600 and 6,600 ft) above sea level.[52] The Hamgyong Range, located in the extreme northeastern part of the peninsula, has many high peaks including Gwanmosan at approximately 1,756 m (5,761 ft).

Other major ranges include the Rangrim Mountains, which are located in the north-central part of North Korea and run in a north-south direction, making communication between the eastern and western parts of the country rather difficult; and the Kangnam Range, which runs along the North Korea–China border. Mount Kumgang, or Diamond Mountain, (approximately 1,638 metres or 5,374 feet) in the Taebaek Range, which extends into South Korea, is famous for its scenic beauty.[52]

For the most part, the plains are small. The most extensive are the Pyongyang and Chaeryong plains, each covering about 500 square kilometres (190 sq mi). Because the mountains on the east coast drop abruptly to the sea, the plains are even smaller there than on the west coast. Unlike neighboring Japan or northern China, North Korea experiences few severe earthquakes.


Main article: Climate of North Korea

North Korea has a continental climate with four distinct seasons.[53] Long winters bring bitter cold and clear weather interspersed with snow storms as a result of northern and northwestern winds that blow fromSiberia. Average snowfall is 37 days during the winter. The weather is likely to be particularly harsh in the northern, mountainous regions.

Summer tends to be short, hot, humid, and rainy because of the southern and southeastern monsoon winds that bring moist air from the Pacific Ocean. Typhoons affect the peninsula on an average of at least once every summer.[53] Spring and autumn are transitional seasons marked by mild temperatures and variable winds and bring the most pleasant weather. Natural hazards include late spring droughts which often are followed by severe flooding. There are occasional typhoons during the early fall.

North Korea’s climate is relatively temperate. Most of the country is classified as type Dwa in the Köppen climate classification scheme, with warm summers and cold, dry winters. In summer there is a short rainy season called changma.[54] On August 7, 2007, the most devastating floods in 40 years caused the North Korean government to ask for international help. NGOs, such as the Red Cross, asked people to raise funds because they feared a humanitarian catastrophe.[55]

Administrative divisions

Map Namea Chosŏn’gŭl Hanja Administrative Seat
Capital city (chikhalsi)a
1 Pyongyang 평양직할시 平壤直轄市 (Chung-guyok)
Special city (teukbyeolsi)a
2 Rason 라선특별시 羅先特別市 (Rajin-guyok)
Provinces (do)a
3 South Pyongan 평안남도 平安南道 Pyongsong
4 North Pyongan 평안북도 平安北道 Sinuiju
5 Chagang 자강도 慈江道 Kanggye
6 South Hwanghae 황해남도 黃海南道 Haeju
7 North Hwanghae 황해북도 黃海北道 Sariwon
8 Kangwon 강원도 江原道 Wonsan
9 South Hamgyong 함경남도 咸鏡南道 Hamhung
10 North Hamgyong 함경북도 咸鏡北道 Chongjin
11 Ryanggang * 량강도 兩江道 Hyesan
* – Rendered in Southern dialects as “Yanggang” (양강도).

Largest cities of North Korea
2008 Census[3]

Rank City name Administrative division Pop.
1 Pyongyang Pyongyang Capital City 3,255,288 Chongjin
2 Hamhung South Hamgyong Province 768,551
3 Chongjin North Hamgyong Province 667,929
4 Nampho South Pyongan Province 366,815
5 Wonsan Kangwon Province 363,127
6 Sinuiju North Pyongan Province 359,341
7 Tanchon South Hamgyong Province 345,875
8 Kaechon South Pyongan Province 319,554
9 Kaesong North Hwanghae Province 308,440
10 Sariwon North Hwanghae Province 307,764

Government and politics

The Juche Tower (‘Tower ofJuche Idea’).

North Korea is a self-described Juche (self-reliant) state,[56] described by some observers as a de facto absolute monarchy[57][58][59] or “hereditary dictatorship”[60] with a pronounced cult of personality organized aroundKim Il-sung (the founder of North Korea and the country’s only president) and his late son, Kim Jong-il. There are also those who reject the view that North Korea is a communist state, instead claiming that the North Korean leadership uses communism as a justification for their rule.[61][62][63] Following Kim Il-sung’s death in 1994, he was not replaced but instead received the designation of “Eternal President“, and was entombed in the vast Kumsusan Palace of the Sun in central Pyongyang.[64]

Although the office of the President is ceremonially held by the deceased Kim Il-sung,[65][66][67] the Supreme Leader until his death in December 2011 was Kim Jong-il, who was General Secretary of the Workers’ Party of Korea and Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea. The legislature of North Korea is the Supreme People’s Assembly, currently led by Chairman Kim Yong-nam. The other senior government figure is Premier Choe Yong-rim.

The structure of the government is described in the Constitution of North Korea, the latest version of which is from 2009 and officially rejects North Korea’s founding ideology of communism.[68] The governing party by law is the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland, a coalition of the Workers’ Party of Korea and two other smaller parties, the Korean Social Democratic Party and the Chondoist Chongu Party. These parties nominate all candidates for office and hold all seats in the Supreme People’s Assembly; although they have negligible power, as the leader holds autocratic control over the nation’s affairs.

In June 2009, it was reported in South Korean media that intelligence indicated that the country’s next leader would be Kim Jong-un, the youngest of Kim Jong-il’s three sons.[69] This was confirmed on 19 December 2011, following Kim Jong-il’s death.[49][70]

Political expression is tightly controlled in North Korea. Supporters of the government who deviate from the government line are subject to reeducation in sections of labor camps set aside for that purpose. Those who are successfully rehabilitated may reassume responsible government positions on their release.[71] Troublesome political dissidents, factionalists and class enemies, who are considered irredeemable are incarcerated together with any close family members or children born in the camp in “Total Control Zones” for life at hard labor. Labor camps in North Korea are actually areas of the country set aside for that purpose, Camp 22 (also known as Kwan-li-so No.22 Haengyong) is 31 miles by 25 miles with a population of about 50,000. Those who attempt to escape or violate camp rules are executed or sent to a separate prison within the camp. The labor camps are reserved for political prisoners; common criminals are incarcerated in a separate system.[72] There are 6 such areas in the northern and northeastern portion of North Korea.[73]

Factionalists or enemies of class, whoever they are, their seed must be eliminated through three generations. Kim Il Sung (1972)[72]

Foreign relations

Kim Jong-il and Vladimir Putin in 2002.

North Korea has long maintained close relations with the People’s Republic of China and Russia. The fall of communism in eastern Europe in 1989, and the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991, resulted in a devastating drop in aid to North Korea from Russia, although China continues to provide substantial assistance. North Korea continues to have strong ties with its socialist southeast Asian allies in Vietnam andLaos, as well as with Cambodia.[74] North Korea has started installing a concrete and barbed wire fence on its northern border, in response to China’s wish to curb refugees fleeing from North Korea. Previously the border between China and North Korea had only been lightly patrolled.[75]

As a result of the North Korean nuclear weapons program, the Six-party talks were established to find a peaceful solution to the growing tension between the two Korean governments, the Russian Federation, the People’s Republic of China, Japan, and the United States.

On July 17, 2007, United Nations inspectors verified the shutdown of five North Korean nuclear facilities, according to the February 2007 agreement.[76]

On October 4, 2007, South Korean President Roh Moo-Hyun and North Korean leader Kim Jong-il signed an 8-point peace agreement, on issues of permanent peace, high-level talks, economic cooperation, renewal of train, highway and air travel, and a joint Olympic cheering squad.[35]

The United States and South Korea previously designated the North as a state sponsor of terrorism.[77] The 1983 bombing that killed members of the South Korean government and the destruction of a South Korean airliner have been attributed to North Korea.[78] North Korea has also admitted responsibility for the kidnapping of 13 Japanese citizens in the 1970s and 1980s, five of whom were returned to Japan in 2002.[79] On October 11, 2008, the United States removed North Korea from its list of states that sponsor terrorism.[80]

In 2009, relationships between North and South Korea increased in intensity; North Korea had been reported to have deployed missiles,[81] ended its former agreements with South Korea,[82] and threatened South Korea and the United States not to interfere with a satellite launch it had planned.[83] North and South Korea are still technically at war (having never signed a peace treaty after the Korean War) and share the world’s most heavily fortified border.[84] On May 27, 2009, North Korean media declared that the Korean Armistice was no longer valid due to the South Korean government’s pledge to “definitely join” the Proliferation Security Initiative.[citation needed] To further complicate and intensify strain between the two nations, the sinking of the South Korean warship Cheonan in March 2010, killing 46 seamen, is as of May 20, 2010 claimed by a multi-national research team[85] to have been caused by a North Korean torpedo, which the North denies. South Korea agreed with the findings from the research group and President Lee Myung-bak declared in May 2010 that Seoul would cut all trade with North Korea as part of measures primarily aimed at striking back at North Korea diplomatically and financially.[86] As a result of this, North Korea severed all ties, completely abrogated the previous pact of non aggression and expelled all South Koreans from a joint industrial zone in Kaesong.[87] On November 23, 2010, North Korea attacked Yeonpyeong Island, further deteriorating the diplomatic relations with the South and other nations.[88]

Most of the foreign embassies connecting with diplomatic ties to North Korea are situated in Beijing rather than Pyongyang.[89]


Human rights

Sneaker-wearing Korean youth walking in Pyongyang.

A uniformed civilian man riding a bicycle in Pyongyang.

Multiple international human rights organizations accuse North Korea of having one of the worst human rights records of any nation.[90] Amnesty International reports of severe restrictions on the freedom of association, expression and movement, arbitrary detention, torture and other ill-treatment resulting in death, and executions.[91] The organization demands the closure of prison camps, where 200,000 political prisoners and their families exist in “the most inhuman conditions imaginable”.[92] North Koreans have been referred to as “some of the world’s most brutalized people” by Human Rights Watch, due to the severe restrictions placed on their political and economic freedoms.[93]

Bribery became prevalent throughout the country.[94] In the 1990’s just listening to South Korean radio could result in capital punishment.[citation needed] However, many North Koreans now illegally wear clothes of South Korean origin, listen to Southern music, watch South Korean videotapes and even receive Southern broadcasts.[95][96]

Political prison camps

Political prison camps in North Korea

North Korean defectors have testified to the existence of prisons and concentration camps[97] and have reported torture, starvation, rape, murder, medical experimentation, forced labour, and forced abortions.[98] According to Amnesty International around 200,000 prisoners (about 0.85% of the population) are held in six large political prison camps,[99]being in operation since the 1950s. They are forced to work in conditions approaching slavery and are frequently subjected to torture and other cruel, inhumane, and degrading treatment.[100] Camp 14 in Kaechon,[101] Camp 15 in Yodok[102] and Camp 18 in Bukchang[103] are described in detailed testimonies.[98] People suspected not to be loyal to the regime, e. g. because they are Christians or because they criticized the leadership,[99] are deported to these camps without trial,[104] often with their whole family and mostly without any chance to be released.[105] The International Coalition to Stop Crimes Against Humanity in North Korea (ICNK) estimates that over 10,000 people die in North Korean prison camps every year.[106]

Personality cult

The North Korean government exercises control over many aspects of the nation’s culture, and this control is used to perpetuate a cult of personality surrounding Kim Il-sung, and, to a lesser extent, Kim Jong-il. While visiting North Korea in 1979, journalist Bradley Martin noted that nearly all music, art, and sculpture that he observed glorified “Great Leader” Kim Il-sung, whose personality cult was then being extended to his son, “Dear Leader” Kim Jong-il.[107] There is even widespread belief that Kim Il-sung “created the world”, and Kim Jong-il could “control the weather”.[107]

A propaganda poster with Kim Il-sung’s official portrait

The song “No Motherland Without You” (당신이없으면 조국도없다), sung by the North Korean Army Choir, was created especially for Kim Jong-il and is one of the most popular tunes in the country. Kim Il-sung is still officially revered as the nation’s “Eternal President”. Several landmarks in North Korea are named for Kim Il-sung, including Kim Il-sung UniversityKim Il-sung Stadium, and Kim Il-sung Square. Defectors have been quoted as saying that North Korean schools deify both father and son.[108] Kim Il-sung rejected the notion that he had created a cult around himself, and accused those who suggested this of “factionalism“.[107]

Critics maintain this Kim Jong-il personality cult was inherited from his father, Kim Il-sung. Kim Jong-il was often the center of attention throughout ordinary life in the DPRK. His birthday is one of the most important public holidays in the country. On his 60th birthday (based on his official date of birth), mass celebrations occurred throughout the country.[109] Kim Jong-il’s personality cult, although significant, was not as extensive as his father’s. In 2004, some of his official portraits were taken down from public buildings.[110] One point of view is that Kim Jong-il’s cult of personality was solely out of respect for Kim Il-sung or out of fear of punishment for failure to pay homage.[111] Media and government sources from outside of North Korea generally support this view,[112][113][114][115][116] while North Korean government sources say that it is genuine hero worship.[117]

Korean reunification

Main article: Korean reunification

North Korea’s policy is to seek reunification without what it sees as outside interference, through a federal structure retaining each side’s leadership and systems. Both North and South Korea signed the June 15th North–South Joint Declaration in which both sides made promises to seek out a peaceful reunification.[118] The Democratic Federal Republic of Korea is a proposed state first mentioned by then North Korean president Kim Il-sung on October 10, 1980, proposing a federation between North and South Korea in which the respective political systems would initially remain.[119]


Main article: Korean People’s Army

Korean People’s Army soldiers observing the South Korean side of the DMZ

The Korean People’s Army (KPA) is the name for the collective armed personnel of the North Korean military. It has five branches: Ground ForceNaval ForceAir ForceSpecial Operations Force, and Rocket Force. According to the U.S. Department of State, North Korea has the fourth-largest army in the world, at an estimated 1.21 million armed personnel, with about 20% of men aged 17–54 in the regular armed forces.[120] North Korea has the highest percentage of military personnel per capita of any nation in the world, with approximately one enlisted soldier for every 25 citizens.[24][121]

Koksan, one of North Korea’s principal heavy artillery pieces. This example was captured in Iraq.

Military strategy is designed for insertion of agents and sabotage behind enemy lines in wartime,[120] with much of the KPA’s forces deployed along the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone. The Korean People’s Army operates a very large amount of equipment, including 4,060 tanks, 2,500 APCs, 17,900 artillery pieces, 11,000 air defence guns and some 10,000 MANPADS and anti-tank guided missiles[122] in the Ground force; at least 915 vessels in the Navy and 1,748 aircraft in the Air Force,[123] of which 478 are fighters and 180 are bombers.[124] North Korea also has the largest special forces in the world, as well as the largest submarine fleet.[125] The equipment is a mixture of World War II vintage vehicles and small arms, widely proliferated Cold War technology, and more modern Soviet or locally produced weapons. In line with its asymmetric warfare strategy, North Korea has also developed a wide range of unconventional techniques and equipment, such as GPS jammers,[126] stealth paint,[127] midget submarines and human torpedoes,[128] a vast array of chemical and biological weapons,[129] and anti-personnel lasers.[130] According to official North Korean media, military expenditures for 2010 amount to 15.8% of the state budget.[131]

North Korea has active nuclear and ballistic missile weapons programs and has been subject to United Nations Security Council resolutions 1695 of July 2006, 1718 of October 2006, and 1874 of June 2009, for carrying out both missile and nuclear tests. North Korea probably has fissile material for up to nine nuclear weapons,[132] and has the capability to deploy nuclear warheads on intermediate-range ballistic missiles.[133]


Main article: Economy of North Korea

An image of the Korean Peninsula at night rendered fromDMSP observations. The disparity in illumination levels is an indication of the differences between the North and South in population and, mostly, energy usage.[134][135]

North Korea has an industrialised, near-autarkic, highly centralized command economy. Of the five remaining Communist states in the world, North Korea is one of only two (along with Cuba) with an almost entirely government-planned, state-owned economy. The Central Planning Committee prepares, supervises and implements economic plans, while a General Bureau of Provincial Industry in each region is responsible for the management of local manufacturing facilities, production, resource allocation and sales.[136]

North Korea’s isolation policy means that international trade is highly restricted. North Korea passed a law in 1984 allowing for foreign investment through joint ventures,[137] but failed to attract any significant investment. In 1991, it established the Rason Economic Special Zone,[138] in an attempt to attract foreign investment from China and Russia. Chinese and Russian companies have purchased rights to use the ports at Rason. Chinese investors are renovating a road from Rason to China,[139] and Russian railway workers are renovating the railway from Rason to Russia, from where it continues onto the Trans-Siberian Railway.[140]

Until 1998, the United Nations published HDI and GDP per capita figures for North Korea, which stood at a medium level of human development at 0.766 (ranked 75th) and a GDP per capita of $4,058.[141] The average salary was about $47 per month in 2004.[142] The average official salary in 2011 was equivalent to $2 per month while the actual monthly income seems to be around $15 because most North Koreans earn money in illegal small businesses: trade, subsistence farming, and handicrafts. The illegal economy is dominated by women because men have to attend their places of official work even though most of the factories are non-functioning.[143] It is estimated that in the early 2000s, the average North Korean family drew some 80% of its income from small businesses that are legal in market economies but illegal in North Korea.[144]

Despite substantial economic problems, quality of life was improving and wages were rising steadily in 2007.[145] Small-scale private markets, known as janmadang, exist throughout the country and provide the population with imported food and commodities ranging from cosmetics to motorcycles in exchange for money.[146][147] In 2009, the government carried out a currency redenomination with the aim to curb free market activity across the country, but the attempt failed, causing inflation rates to skyrocket, and eventually led to the lifting of the ban on free market trade.[148]

Food rations, housing, healthcare, and education are offered from the state for free,[149] and the payment of taxes has been abolished since April 1, 1974.[150] In order to increase productivity from agriculture and industry, since the 1960s the North Korean government has introduced a number of management systems such as the Taean work system.[151] In the 21st century, North Korea’s GDP growth has been slow but steady, although in recent years, growth has gradually accelerated to 3.7% in 2008, the fastest pace in almost a decade, largely due to a sharp growth of 8.2% in the agricultural sector.[152]

GDP Growth by year[152][153]
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
1.3% 3.7% 1.2% 1.8% 2.2% 1.0% 1.6% 1.8% 3.7% 3.7%

Hungju collective chicken farm, Chagang Province.

According to estimates from 2002, the dominant sector in the North Korean economy is industry (43.1%), followed by services (33.6%) and agriculture (23.3%). In 2004, it was estimated that agriculture employed 37% of the workforce while industry and services employed the remaining 63%.[5] Major industries include military products, machine building, electric power, chemicals, mining, metallurgy, textiles, food processing and tourism.Iron ore and coal production are among the few sectors where North Korea performs significantly better than its southern neighbour – the DPRK produces about 10 times larger amounts of each resource.[154]

Rice yields are about 2.8 tonnes per hectare, about half that in most countries, with soil degradation, lack of fertilisers, and limited mechanisation blamed.[155] In 2005, North Korea was ranked by the FAO as an estimated 10th in the production of fresh fruit[156] and as an estimated 19th in the production of apples.[157] It has substantial natural resources and is the world’s 18th largest producer of iron and zinc, having the22nd largest coal reserves in the world. It is also the 15th largest fluorite producer and 12th largest producer of copper and salt in Asia. Other major natural resources in production include leadtungstengraphite,magnesitegoldpyritesfluorspar, and hydropower.[5]

Private commerce

Generic paracetamol tablets made in the DPRK by a joint venture company

FamilyMart store in Kaesong Industrial Region, North Korea’s light industry center.

In 1991, North Korea started experimenting with private capitalism in the Rajin-Sonbong Economic Special Zone, and in 2002 also set up the Kaesong Industrial Region.[158] A small number of other areas have been designated as Special Administrative Regions. China and South Korea are the biggest trade partners of North Korea, with trade with China increasing 15% to US$1.6 billion in 2005, and trade with South Korea increasing 50% to over 1 billion for the first time in 2005.[159] China is North Korea’s closest economic partner, with 73% of North Korea’s foreign trade being conducted with this country.[160]

In 2000, Centre for the Study of the Capitalist System was established.[161] Increasingly more foreign-invested joint ventures have been set up since 2002.[162] The Pyongyang Business School was established by the Swiss government to help teach students business management.[163]

A small number of capitalistic elements are gradually spreading from the trial area, including a number of advertising billboards along certain highways. Recent visitors have reported that the number of open-air farmers’ markets has increased in Kaesong and Pyongyang, as well as along the China-North Korea border, bypassing the food rationing system. In addition to food aid, China reportedly provides an estimated 80 to 90 percent of North Korea’s oil imports at “friendly prices” that are sharply lower than the world market price.[164]

North Korea also has a cartoon animation industry, sub-contracting work from South Korean animation studios.[165]


Main article: Tourism in North Korea

The Mount Kumgang Tourist Region was popular among South Korean tourists until its suspension in 2008

Tourism in North Korea is organized by the state-owned Korea International Travel Company. All tourists/visitors are constantly accompanied by one or two “guides”, who usually speak the tourist’s native language. While tourism has increased over the last few years, tourists from Western countries remain few.

Most visitors come from China, Russia, and Japan. Russian citizens from the Asian part of Russia prefer North Korea as a tourist destination because of the relatively low prices, lack of pollution, and warmer climate. For citizens of South Korea, it is almost impossible to get a visa to North Korea; they can get “entry permits” to special tourist areas designated for South Koreans, such as Kaesong. United States citizens were also subject to visa restrictions, allowed to visit only during the yearly Arirang Festival; these restrictions were lifted in January 2010. Fewer than 2,500 United States citizens have visited North Korea since 1953.[166]

In the area of Mount Kumgang, the company Hyundai established and operates a special tourist area. Travel to this area is possible for South Koreans and United States citizens, but only in organized groups from South Korea. A special administrative region, the Mount Kumgang Tourist Region, exists for this purpose. Trips to the region were suspended after a South Korean woman who wandered into a controlled military zone was shot dead by border guards in late 2008.[167] When tours had not resumed by May 2010, North Korea announced that it would seize South Korean real estate assets in the region.[168]


Main article: North Korean famine

In the 1990s North Korea faced significant economic disruptions, including a series of natural disasters, economic mismanagement and serious resource shortages after the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. These resulted in a shortfall of staple grain output of more than 1 million tons from what the country needs to meet internationally accepted minimum dietary requirements.[169] The North Korean famine known as “Arduous March” resulted in the deaths of between 300,000 and 800,000 North Koreans per year during the three year famine, peaking in 1997.[17] The deaths were most likely caused by famine-related illnesses such as pneumoniatuberculosis, and diarrhea rather than starvation.[17]

In 2006, Amnesty International reported that a national nutrition survey conducted by the North Korean government, the World Food Programme, and UNICEF found that 7% of children were severely malnourished; 37% were chronically malnourished; 23.4% were underweight; and one in three mothers was malnourished and anaemic as the result of the lingering effect of the famine. The inflation caused by some of the 2002 economic reforms, including the Songun or “Military-first” policy, was cited for creating the increased price of basic foods.[170]

The history of Japanese assistance to North Korea has been marked with challenges; from a large pro-Pyongyang community of Koreans in Japan to public outrage over the 1998 North Korean missile launch and revelations regarding the abduction of Japanese citizens.[171] In June 1995 an agreement was reached that the two countries would act jointly.[171] South Korea would provide 150,000 MT of grain in unmarked bags, and Japan would provide 150,000 MT gratis and another 150,000 MT on concessional terms.[171] In October 1995 and January 1996, North Korea again approached Japan for assistance. On these two occasions, both of which came at crucial moments in the evolution of the famine, opposition from both South Korea and domestic political sources quashed the deals.[171]

Beginning in 1997, the U.S. began shipping food aid to North Korea through the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) to combat the famine. Shipments peaked in 1999 at nearly 700,000 tons making the U.S. the largest foreign aid donor to the country at the time. Under the Bush Administration, aid was drastically reduced year after year from 350,000 tons in 2001 to 40,000 in 2004.[172] The Bush Administration took criticism for using “food as a weapon” during talks over the North’s nuclear weapons program, but insisted the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) criteria were the same for all countries and the situation in North Korea had “improved significantly since its collapse in the mid-1990s.” Agricultural production had increased from about 2.7 million metric tons in 1997 to 4.2 million metric tons in 2004.[173]

Media and telecommunications


North Korean media are under some of the strictest government control in the world. The North Korean constitution provides for freedom of speech and the press; but the government prohibits the exercise of these rights in practice. In its 2010 report,Reporters without Borders ranked freedom of the press in North Korea as 177th out of 178, above only that of Eritrea.[174] Only news that favors the regime is permitted, while news that covers the economic and political problems in the country, and foreign criticism of the government, are not allowed.[175] The media upheld the personality cult of Kim Jong-un, regularly reporting on his daily activities. The main news provider to media in the DPRK is the Korean Central News Agency.

North Korea has 12 principal newspapers and 20 major periodicals, all of varying periodicity and all published in Pyongyang.[176] Newspapers include the Rodong SinmunJoson InmingunMinju Choson, and Rodongja Sinmum. No private press is known to exist.[177]

In January 2012, the Associated Press opened a bureau in Pyongyang for full news coverage within North Korea.[178] [179]

Telephones and Internet

North Korea has an adequate telephone system, with 1.18 million fixed lines available in 2008.[180] However, most phones are only installed for senior government officials. Someone wanting a phone installed must fill out a form indicating their rank, why he wants a phone, and how he will pay for it.[181] The number of mobile phones in Pyongyang rose from 3,000 in 2002 to approximately 20,000 in 2004.[182] In June 2004, mobile phones were forbidden again.[183] The prohibition lasted until 2008, when a new,3G network, Koryolink, was built through a joint venture with Orascom Telecom Holding, of Egypt. In May 2010, more than 120,000 North Koreans owned mobile phones.[184] By September 2010, the number of subscribers reached 301,000.[185] By August 2011, the number of mobile-phone subscribers had increased to 660,000 users.[186] By December 2011, the number of subscribers was reported as 900,000.[187]

North Korea’s first Internet café opened in 2002 as a joint venture with a South Korean Internet company, Hoonnet. Ordinary North Koreans do not have access to the global Internet network, but are provided with a nationwide, public-use Intranet service called Kwangmyong, which features domestic news, an e-mail service, and censored information from foreign websites (mostly scientific).[188]


Puhŭng station of the Pyongyang Metro.

Two of the few ways to enter North Korea are over the Sino-Korea Friendship Bridge or via Panmunjeom, the former crossing the Amnok River and the latter crossing the Demilitarized Zone.

On October 13, 2011 a train from the Russian border settlement of Khasan made an inaugural run to Rajin in North Korea. It run a 54-kilometer along a newly repaired link of reconstruction all the Trans-Korean railfor its further integration into the Trans-Siberian railroad.[189]

Private cars in North Korea are a rare sight, but as of 2008 some 70% of households used bicycles, which also play an increasingly important role in small-scale private trade.[190] Very few cars and light trucks are made in a joint-venture between Pyeonghwa Motors of South Korea, and the North Korean Ryonbong General Corp at a facility in Nampo North Korea.[191] Another local producer of vehicles is Sungri Motor Plant, which manufactures civilian vehicles and heavy trucks.

There is a mix of locally built and imported trolleybuses and trams in urban centers in North Korea. Earlier fleets were obtained in Europe and China, but the trade embargo has forced North Korea to build their own vehicles.

Rail transport

A train in North Korea

Choson Cul Minzuzui Inmingonghoagug is the only rail operator in North Korea. It has a network of 5,200 km (3,200 mi) of track with 4,500 km (2,800 mi) in standard gauge.[192] There is a small narrow gauge railway in operation in Haeju peninsula.[192] The railway fleet consists of a mix of electric and steam locomotives. Cars are mostly made in North Korea using Soviet and Chinese designs. There are some locomotives from Imperial Japan, the United States, and Europe remaining in use. Second-hand Chinese locomotives (early DF4Bs, BJ Hydraulics, etc.) have also been spotted in active service.

People traveling from the capital Pyongyang to other regions in North Korea typically travel by rail. But in order to travel out of Pyongyang, people need an official travel certificate, ID, and a purchased ticket in advance. Due to lack of maintenance on the infrastructure and vehicles, the travel time by rail is increasing. It has been reported that the 120 mile (193 km) trip from Pyongyang to Kaesong can take up to 6 hours.[193]

Marine transport

A North Korean cargo ship off the coast of Somalia

Water transport on the major rivers and along the coasts plays a growing role in freight and passenger traffic. Except for the Yalu and Taedong rivers, most of the inland waterways, totaling 2,253 kilometres (1,400 mi), are navigable only by small boats. Coastal traffic is heaviest on the eastern seaboard, whose deeper waters can accommodate larger vessels. The major ports are Nampho on the west coast and Rajin,ChongjinWonsan, and Hamhung on the east coast. The country’s harbor loading capacity in the 1990s was estimated at almost 35 million tons a year.[194]

In the early 1990s, North Korea possessed an oceangoing merchant fleet, largely domestically produced, of sixty-eight ships (of at least 1,000 gross-registered tons), totaling 465,801 gross-registered tons (709,442 metric tons deadweight (DWT)), which includes fifty-eight cargo ships and two tankers. There is a continuing investment in upgrading and expanding port facilities, developing transportation—particularly on the Taedong River—and increasing the share of international cargo by domestic vessels.[195]

Air transport

The departure lounge at Sunan International Airport

North Korea’s international air connections are limited. There are regularly scheduled flights from the Sunan International Airport – 24 kilometres (15 mi) north of Pyongyang – to MoscowKhabarovskVladivostokBangkokBeijingDalianKuala LumpurShanghaiShenyang along with seasonal services to Singapore and charter flights from Sunan to numerous Asian and European destinations including Tokyo and Nagoya. Regular charters to existing scheduled services are operated as per demand. An agreement to initiate a service between Pyongyang and Tokyo was signed in 1990. Internal flights are available between PyongyangHamhungHaeju,KaesongKanggyeKiljuNampoSinuijuSamjiyonWonsan, and Chongjin.[196]

All civil aircraft are operated by Air Koryo: 38 aircraft in 2010, which were purchased from the Soviet Union and Russia. From 1976 to 1978, four Tu-154 jets were added to the 7 of propeller-driven An-24s and 2 Ilyushin Il-18’s afterwards adding four long range Ilyushin Il-62M, three Ilyushin Il-76MD large cargo aircraft. In 2008 a long range Tupolev Tu-204-300’s purchased along with a larger version the Tupolev Tu-204-100B in 2010.[194]


Population pyramid of North Korea

Prefabricated apartments house a large portion of the population. Housing in North Korea is free, but cramped as with many other Asian nations.[197]

North Korea’s population of roughly 24 million is one of the most ethnically and linguistically homogeneous in the world, with very small numbers of Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, South Korean, and European expatriate minorities.

According to the CIA World Factbook, North Korea’s life expectancy was 63.8 years in 2009, a figure roughly equivalent to that of Pakistan and Burma and slightly lower than Russia.[198] Infant mortality stood at a high level of 51.3, which is 2.5 times higher than that of China, 5 times that of Russia, 12 times that of South Korea.[199]

According to the UNICEF “The State of the world’s Children 2003” North Korea appears ranked at the 73rd place (with first place having the highest mortality rate), between Guatemala (72nd) and Tuvalu(74th).[199][200] North Korea’s Total fertility rate is relatively low and stood at 2.0 in 2009, comparable to those of the United States and France.[201]


Main article: Korean language

North Korea shares the Korean language with South Korea. There are dialect differences within both Koreas, but the border between North and South does not represent a major linguistic boundary. While prevalent in the South, the adoption of modern terms from foreign languages has been limited in North Korea. Hanja (Chinese characters) are no longer used in North Korea (ever since 1949), although still occasionally used in South Korea. In South Korea, knowledge of Chinese writing is viewed as a measure of intellectual achievement and level of education. Both Koreas share the phonetic writing system calledChosongul in the north and Hangul south of the DMZ. The official Romanization differs in the two countries, with North Korea using a slightly modified McCune-Reischauer system, and the South using the Revised Romanization of Korean. The move toward prohibiting both Roman and Chinese based characters in North Korea has led to a number of words and phrases not common in the southern half of the peninsula or in Korean communities abroad.


Both Koreas share a Buddhist and Confucian heritage and a recent history of Christian and Cheondoism (“religion of the Heavenly Way”) movements. The North Korean constitution states that freedom of religion is permitted.[202] According to the Western standards of religion, the majority of the North Korean population could be characterized as irreligious. However, the cultural influence of such traditional religions as Buddhism and Confucianism still have an effect on North Korean spiritual life.[203][204][205]

Nevertheless, Buddhists in North Korea reportedly fare better than other religious groups, particularly Christians, who are said to face persecution by the authorities. Buddhists are given limited funding by the government to promote the religion, because Buddhism played an integral role in traditional Korean culture.[206]

An ancient relief image of the Buddha, Mount Kumgang

According to Human Rights Watch, free religious activities no longer exist in North Korea, as the government sponsors religious groups only to create an illusion of religious freedom.[207] According to Religious Intelligence the situation of religion in North Korea is the following:[208]

  • Irreligion: 15,460,000 (64.3% of population, the vast majority of which are adherents of the Juche philosophy)
  • Korean shamanism: 3,846,000 adherents (16% of population)
  • Cheondoism: 3,245,000 adherents (13.5% of population)
  • Buddhism: 1,082,000 adherents (4.5% of population)
  • Christianity: 406,000 adherents (1.7% of population)

Pyongyang was the center of Christian activity in Korea until 1945. From the late forties 166 priests and other religious figures were killed or disappeared in concentration camps, including Francis Hong Yong-ho, bishop of Pyongyang[209] and all monks of Tokwon abbey.[210] No Catholic priest survived the persecution, all churches were destroyed and the government never allowed any foreign priest to set up in North Korea.[211]

Today, four state-sanctioned churches exist, which freedom of religion advocates say are showcases for foreigners.[212][213] Official government statistics report that there are 10,000 Protestants and 4,000 Roman Catholics in North Korea.[214]

According to a ranking published by Open Doors, an organization that supports persecuted Christians, North Korea is currently the country with the most severe persecution of Christians in the world.[215] Open Doors estimates that 50000 – 70000 Christians are detained in North Korean prison camps.[216] Human rights groups such as Amnesty International also have expressed concerns about religious persecution in North Korea.[217]


A young girl in a school in Mangyongdae

Education in North Korea is free of charge,[218] compulsory until the secondary level, and is controlled by the government. The state also used to provide school uniforms free of charge until the early 1990s.[219]Heuristics is actively applied in order to develop the independence and creativity of students.[220] Compulsory education lasts eleven years, and encompasses one year of preschool, four years of primary education and six years of secondary education. The school curriculum has both academic and political content.[221]

Primary schools are known as people’s schools, and children attend them from the age of 6 to 9. Then from age 10 to 16, they attend either a regular secondary school or a special secondary school, depending on their specialties.

Higher education is not compulsory in North Korea. It is composed of two systems: academic higher education and higher education for continuing education. The academic higher education system includes three kinds of institutions: universitiesprofessional schools, and technical schoolsGraduate schools for master’s and doctoral level studies are attached to universities, and are for students who want to continue their education. Two notable universities in the DPRK are the Kim Il-sung University and Pyongyang University of Science and Technology, both in Pyongyang. The former, founded in October 1946, is an elite institution whose enrollment of 16,000 full- and part-time students in the early 1990s occupies, in the words of one observer, the “pinnacle of the North Korean educational and social system.”[222]

North Korea is one of the most literate countries in the world, with an average literacy rate of 99%.[5]

Health care

A dental cabinet at one of North Korea’s major hospitals

North Korea has a national medical service and health insurance system.[223] North Korea spends 3% of its gross domestic product on health care. Beginning in the 1950s, the DPRK put great emphasis on healthcare, and between 1955 and 1986, the number of hospitals grew from 285 to 2,401, and the number of clinics – from 1,020 to 5,644.[224] There are hospitals attached to factories and mines. Since 1979 more emphasis has been put on traditional Korean medicine, based on treatment with herbs and acupuncture.

North Korea’s healthcare system has been in a steep decline since the 1990s due to natural disasters, economic problems, and food and energy shortages. Many hospitals and clinics in North Korea now lack essential medicines, equipment, running water and electricity.[225]

Almost 100% of the population has access to water and sanitation, but it is not completely potable. Infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, malaria, and hepatitis B, are considered to be endemic to the country.[226] Life expectancy in North Korea is 63.8 years, occupying the 170th place in the world, according to 2009 estimates.[198]

Among other health problems, many North Korean citizens suffer from the after effects of malnutrition, caused by famines related to the failure of its food distribution program and “military first” policy. A 1998 United Nations (UN) World Food Program report revealed that 60% of children suffered from malnutrition, and 16% were acutely malnourished. As a result, those who suffered during the disaster have ongoing health problems.

Culture and arts

Kimchaek University e-Library in Pyongyang

Scene from the Mass Games

A drawing in one of the chambers of theGoguryeo tombs.

North Korea shares its traditional culture with South Korea, but the two Koreas have developed distinct contemporary forms of culture since the peninsula was divided in 1945. Historically, while the culture of Korea has been influenced by that of neighbouring China, it has nevertheless managed to develop a unique and distinct cultural identity from its larger neighbour.[227]

Literature and arts in North Korea are state-controlled, mostly through the Propaganda and Agitation Department or the Culture and Arts Department of the Central Committee of the KWP.[228]

Korean culture came under attack during the Japanese rule from 1910 to 1945. Japan enforced a cultural assimilation policy. During the Japanese rule, Koreans were encouraged to learn and speak Japanese, adopt the Japanese family name system and Shinto religion, and were forbidden to write or speak the Korean language in schools, businesses, or public places.[229] In addition, the Japanese altered or destroyed various Korean monuments including Gyeongbok Palace and documents which portrayed the Japanese in a negative light were revised.

In July 2004, the Complex of Goguryeo Tombs became the first site in the country to be included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.

In February 2008, The New York Philharmonic Orchestra became the first US orchestra to perform in North Korea,[230] albeit for a handpicked “invited audience.”[231] The concert was broadcast on national television.[232] The Christian rock band Casting Crowns played at the annual Spring Friendship Arts Festival in April 2007, held in Pyongyang.[233]

A popular event in North Korea is the Mass Games. The most recent and largest Mass Games was called “Arirang“. It was performed six nights a week for two months, and involved over 100,000 performers. Attendees to this event in recent years report that the anti-West sentiments have been toned down compared to previous performances. The Mass Games involve performances of dance, gymnastics, and choreographic routines which celebrate the history of North Korea and the Workers’ Party Revolution. The Mass Games are held in Pyongyang at various venues (varying according to the scale of the Games in a particular year) including the Rungrado May Day Stadium, which is the largest stadium in the world with a capacity of 150,000 people.

North Korea employs artists to produce art for export at the Mansudae Art Studio in Pyongyang. Over 1,000 artists are employed. Products include water colors, ink drawings, posters, mosaics and embroidery.Socialist realism is the approved style with North Korea being portrayed as prosperous and progressive and its citizens as happy and enthusiastic. Traditional Korean designs and themes are present most often in the embroidery. The artistic and technical quality of the works produced is very high but other than a few wealthy South Korean collectors there is a limited market due to public taste and reluctance of states and collectors to financially support the regime.[234]


Main article: Sport in North Korea

North Korea (in red) playing against Brazil in the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa.

Perhaps the most well known sporting event in North Korea is the annual Arirang Festival. The main attraction of Arirang is the mass gymnastics display. In football, fifteen clubs compete in the DPR Korea League level-one and vie for both the Technical Innovation Contests and the Republic Championship. The national football team, Chollima, compete in the AFC and are ranked 105 by FIFA as of 26 May 2010. The team competed in the finals of the FIFA World Cup in 1966 and 2010. In hockey, North Korea has a men’s team that is ranked 43rd out of 49[235] and competes in Division II. The women’s team is ranked 21 out of 34[236] and competes in Division II.

North Korea has been competing in the Olympics since 1964 and debuted at the summer games in 1972 by taking home five medals, including one gold. The IOC Code is PRK.

North Korea boycotted the 1988 Summer Olympics in neighboring Seoul.

At the Athens Games in 2004, the North and South marched together in the opening and closing ceremonies under the Unification Flag, but competed separately. To date, North Korea has medaled in every summer Olympics in which they have participated.

The martial art taekwondo originated in Korea. In the 1950s and 60s, modern rules were standardised and taekwondo became an official Olympic sport in 2000. Other Korean martial arts include taekkyeon,hapkidotang soo dokuk sool wonkumdo and subak.

See also

 Media related to North Korea at Wikimedia Commons


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法國總統候選人結束競選活動 – BBC中文網

April 21, 2012 Leave a comment

Google 新聞 香港版

via 法國總統候選人結束競選活動 – BBC中文網.















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April 20, 2012 Leave a comment

World In My Eyes

via 越南政改真刀真枪已将摸石头的中国甩在后面.

作者 北京特约记者 周西
温家宝总理不久前曾发出号召,我们“不仅要进行经济体制改革,而且要进行政治体制改革,特别是党和国家领导制度的改革”。我们今天的话题就从这里说起。对此,有网友点评说,温总理多年来对中国政治体制改革的呼吁,终于清清楚楚地落在了“党和国家领导制度的改革”上,如果有人再问,什么是政治体制改革?这,就是答案 (网友赵光勇)。


FT中文网上作者罗天昊的文章回顾说,事实上,1986年开始的越南“革新开放”,相对于中国改革开放,可谓是青出于蓝而胜于蓝。在政治领域,2002年,越南国会便可以直接质询越共中央政治局等权力核心机构;2006年,越共在其十大上,就已经实现了总书记的差额选举;同年,越南加入世贸组织,国会议员也实现了直选,越南国会甚至可以否决其政府总理提出的关于高铁投资的计划;到2009年,越南又实现了地方党委书记由党员直选的制度;2010年,越南就已经建立了官员财产申报制度,党政 军及社会组织、国有企业副科级以上的干部,都必须公开个人财产。


文章又说,打破旧世界与建设新世界,是两种完全不同的能力。在那些传统社会主义国家里,由于革命领袖们的巨大贡献,往往都享有崇高的威望,但由于他们的威望,大都是由革命而派生的,于是,继续革命乃至终生革命, 以致于无法完成自身角色转换的革命领袖比比皆是,他们大多都给国家造成了巨大的损失。致使在这些国家,总是要等到那些传统革命领袖们自然老去,第二代领导人才有力量启动国家现代化的计划,而类似的教训,在前社会主义阵营的国家里屡见不鲜。

在越南,胡志明是无可争议的革命领袖,其数十年的革命生涯,为举国上下所折服,以致于当胡志明于1969年去世之后,越南已经没有了绝对权威。胡志明的继任者黎笋,虽然也很强势,却仍然无法制衡党内的各种势力,这反而为越南政治的多样性,预留了巨大的战略空间。虽然黎笋奉行亲苏反华的政策,并直接引发了中越边境战争,但即便如此,在黎笋当政的十年间,越共党内的中间派和改革派,均有幸保留了相当的实力,并没有像某些国家那样,被残酷清洗一空。 因此,当黎笋于1986年去世之后,继任的温和派领导人长征,很快便利用其体制内程序,解放了被称为“越南的邓小平”的改革派领袖阮文灵。正是阮文灵的上台,促成了越南全面走上“革新开放”之路。


罗天昊的文章回顾说,越南在1976年宣布南北统一, 1986年即开始革新开放,在此十年间,越南的南北经济模式之优劣,对比明显。南北分治的时候,越南南方基本上由美国人经营,实行现代体制,经济相对发达,具有比较强的市场经济基础。其繁荣程度,已经超过了当时的泰国,西贡更是被称为“东方的巴黎”。而在越南统一之后,在南方采取了跟北方一致的政策,对所有的企业实行国有化,对农村实行集体化,把资本主义“扫地出门”。南方“北化”之后,越南人才发现,不仅北方不行了,原本繁荣的南方,亦开始凋敝。整个越南,就开始了反思和对比,在维持“政治正确”的前提下,南方搞经济的那一套,还是赢得了相当多的越南高层的认同。

同时,大批在南方工作的干部,纷纷进入越南高层,他们相对而言更具有现代眼光,这样,在改革的“顶层”设计上,越 南即与中国不同,他们的步伐更大,更容易接受新事物,富有闯荡的勇气。除越南改革的灵魂人物阮文灵外,前总理武文杰、前国家主席阮明哲、现总理阮晋勇等,都是越南党内改革派的棋手。而现在风头正劲的阮晋勇,正是典型的南方派,他的政治生涯,即从胡志明市发生飞跃。由此可见,越南的革新开放之后,对于现代文明的承接,要比中国成功得多。

文章接着说,虽然中国方面非常忌讳谈论越南的政治改革,但事实上,作为学生的越南确实已经将老师远远甩到了身后。越南政改的最大突破,莫过于越共总书记顺利实现了差额竟选,而这一职位,在其他社会主义国家,至今仍然是讳莫如深,无人敢于对其产生方式提出质疑。事实上,在实现总书记差额竞选之前,越南就先期对其政治局的设置进行了改革。早在2001 年,越共就取消了政治局常委,恢复设立了中央书记处,总书记是中央书记处成员,却不能担任国家元首之职;总理实权较大,但却无军权和党权;国家主席只具有名义上的军权和政权;总书记也仅有实际军权和有限的党权,但却无政权;国会主席职权虽虚,但近年来有一定充实。

文章最后强调说,而正是有了前期的铺垫,使得总书记不再是一权独大,再推出总书记的差额竞选,才不致引来巨大反弹。由此可见,在越共高层,党政军权力相当分散,呈现出程度不同的相互制衡色彩,这在某种意义上,已经越来越接近现代政治文明的基本要求了。此外,在核心实权职位改革的同时,越南最大的突破,是国会代表这种相对虚职的普遍竞选制度。2007年,在越南第十二届国会选举中,越南推行了国会代表差额竞选制度,从875位 候选人当中选出500位新任国会议员。

在很多“社会主义兄弟国家”,人大代表或者国会代表,要不就是官员,不是官员的代表,也多数是“花瓶”和门面。而越南的直选则是真刀真枪,越南共产党中央推荐的代表,甚至都有两位数的落选。国会代表的竞选,增强了整体政治活力,亦使国会更能代表多数国民的意志。 (注:文章作者为中国长江商学院前高级研究员,致力于国家及企业竞争战略研究。)


April 20, 2012 Leave a comment


via 宗庆后参政议政的公心与私利.






























April 20, 2012 Leave a comment


via 铁道部还有多少秘密没有透露?.














April 20, 2012 Leave a comment


via 海龟与土鳖之争何时能了?.


     中国的土鳖与海龟之争,始于九十年代后期,并且持续至今。他们争什么呢?这个“争”字是什么意思呢?首先,二者之争的根源是国家为了吸引海龟回国所制订的一系列政策。这些政策为海龟们在国内的就业、创业提供了很多方便和优惠。大凡物不平则鸣,土鳖们对此不满在所难免。再加上有些海龟适应不了国内的工作环境,业绩差强人意,还有一些骗子和牛皮大王混杂在海龟之中,土鳖们对海龟的不满情绪还是有相当大的合理成分的。尽管如此,国家对海龟们的态度还是始终如一的。近日出台的《北京大学教师聘任和职务晋升制度改革方案》,其主要内容之一就被解释成“赶走土鳖、请回海龟”,所以这个纸面上的改革在北大校园造成强烈震撼,赞成和反对两派壁垒森严:“海龟都赞成,土鳖都反对”。 (高昱:为什么我们关心北大教改?)。所以说,海龟和土鳖抢饭碗,而二者之间存在不平等竞争,这是矛盾的根本。说到底,龟鳖之争是利益之争。

    二  龟鳖之争的两个战场






    这个帖子有29个跟贴,从中可以看出,axz123博士遇到的问题是很普遍的。 其中一个回贴就明言,“那些土鳖们根本就不想让海龟回去,所以最好的办法就是找自己的老同学,回母校。否则,浪费时间。”事实也确实如此:在学术界就职的海龟,绝大多数都回到了自己的母校。没有这层关系,几乎不可能通过正常招聘途径进入中国的学术界。另一个例子就是,南京大学在全球招聘教授,可自称为“海外赤子”的李正起博士的求职信却根本就没人理睬。(李正起:南京大学就是这样面向海内外招聘教授吗?)。

    三   阻挡海龟进入中国学术界的玻璃大门







    四   陈晓宁、姚雪彪、朱大海:海龟种种




    实际上,姚雪彪是落入土龟设置的陷阱中的另一个人。表面上,他名利双得, 每年在国内工作三、四个月左右,但却控制大笔科研经费,带领大批研究生,风光无限。可实质上,他的工作性质决定了他只是一个打短工的:他在国内的地位取决于他在国外的地位。一旦他没有了国外的基地,他在国内也就一文不名了。 因此,他是决策者手中的棋子,充其量也就是个二老板。在“流氓教授与骗子学生(三)”一文中,我曾评论说:“国家养了这么多院士,为什么他们自己不干点象样的活、却要花大价钱从海外雇人打半工?这不相当一个人花钱请保姆,然后再掏出一笔钱请人来侍候这个保姆吗?我看,其中原因只能有两个:或者是这些院士太懒,或者是他们根本就干不了象样的活儿。”所以,这些半工海龟的价值就在于替那些当权的土龟干活。他们是保姆的保姆。

    哈尔滨工业大学的朱大海是另一种海龟。他在1999年前后回国,在哈工大任全职教授。哈工大给予他很高的待遇:投资250 万元人民币为他建立实验室,让他当博士生导师,让他担任生命科学系的副主任,让他享受仅次于院士的住房标准,并且极力推荐使他得到国家自然科学基金会的“杰出青年”基金,科研经费超过百万元人民币。可是,三、四年过去了,朱大海及其率领的二十多人,只是在国内刊物上发表一些文章,许多还是所谓的综述。这显然辜负了学校对他的过高期望。但这还不是问题的实质。朱大海的问题是他过度的自我吹嘘,极端的狂妄自大,以及缺乏最基本的道德修养。他说自己“德太高、能太强”,所以在国内找不到合作夥伴。他把一个基因的序列存储到GenBank 数据库,然后就对全国宣称得到GenBank 的“认证”。这是十分明显地在欺骗国人,因为那个数据库根本就不对任何数据进行“认证”,数据的真实和可靠完全由提交者自己负责。自高自大,欺骗舆论,这在中国目前的学术界也许算不上是什么问题,但动不动就张口骂人,时不常就动手打人,这却是十分罕见的。而这位海龟的罕见之处也就在这里。(biosys:这就是我们的杰出青年科学家)。与陈晓宁蓄意行骗、姚雪彪误落陷阱相比,朱大海的陨落来自本身劣根性的任意膨胀,而国内学术界是这个劣根性膨胀的极佳环境。

    鱼龙混杂,泥沙俱下,是海龟们需要直接面对的严重问题。新语丝网站揭露了许多海龟败类,因此引起不少海外留学生的不满,认为这是在给留学生抹黑。 实际上,这是在净化海龟队伍,是一件功德无量的好事。





    可事实却是,国内学术界在千方百计地阻止海龟的回流。目前所谓的百万年薪教授、百人计划正在成为新的学术腐败温床,靠关系,靠金钱,很多学术水平一般的人也被捧到了“明星”的高度。(孤独剑:日本论文博士质疑;xin :“招来女婿赶走儿子”的几个例子;清华大学自动化系研究生:且看清华大学的百人计划是什么水平?)。听说中科院的百人计划中,就有尚未毕业的研究生参


    其实,受学术腐败坑害的不仅是海龟,而且包括土鳖。他们是目前这个教育制度的牺牲品:他们花费了大量的时间和金钱,但并没有得到与他们的学位相适应的知识和本领;铺天盖地的博士学位帽子,又使具有真才实学的人难以出头。 但是,当权人物玩弄权术,却挑起了他们对海龟的仇恨。实际上,无论海龟的境遇如何,土鳖们的命运在可见的将来都是不容乐观的。他们的出路有两个:一是离乡出走,到国外接受再教育;或者抗击学术腐败,在中国建立一个干净的学术界。


    由于中国学术界目前的状况极难改变,龟鳖之争的结局实际已经有了分晓。这就是,国家将继续花大钱买红花往树上挂,而这棵大树的根系则日渐萎缩,树心日渐淘空,可是那些真正想要汇入这棵大树主体的海外莘莘学子却报国无门。 有什么解决办法吗?有,那就是在中国另建一套学术系统:私立、非牟利的学术系统,特别是高等教育系统。尽管现在看来,这套系统在中国成为现实的可能性还很小,但这却是中国学术发展的唯一出路。

Categories: China Observation Tags: , ,


April 19, 2012 Leave a comment


via “中国人民的老朋友”如何参政议政.

发表时间:三月. 23, 2012 | 作者:  | 类别:1.中国观察阅人知世 | 已有603次阅读



记者 方可成 实习生 李熠祺 发自北京





















































方可成, 南方周末, 记者,专栏作者
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