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Welcome to North Korea

May 5, 2012 1 comment





North Korea 2011 Parade

North Korea Military Parade 15/4/12

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

조선민주주의인민공화국
Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk[1]
Flag Emblem
Motto: 강성대국
(English: Powerful and Prosperous Nation)
Anthem: 

Play sound
The National Anthem of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (Converted MIDI).ogg

애국가
(tr.: “Aegukka“)
(English: “The Patriotic Song”)

Capital
(and largest city)
Pyongyang
39°2′N 125°45′E
Official language(s) Korean
Official scripts Chosŏn’gŭl
Ethnic groups Korean
Demonym North Korean,Korean
Government Juche unitarysingle-party state
 – First Chairman of the Defence Commission[a] Kim Jong-un
 – First Secretary of the Workers’ Party Kim Jong-un
 – Supreme Commander of the People’s Army Kim Jong-un[b]
 – Chairman of the Presidium of Assembly Kim Yong-nam[c]
 – Premier Choe Yong-rim
Legislature Supreme People’s Assembly
Establishment
 – Independence declared March 1, 1919
 – Liberation August 15, 1945
 – Formal declaration September 9, 1948
Area
 – Total 120,540 km2 (98th)
46,528 sq mi
 – Water (%) 4.87
Population
 – 2011 estimate 24,051,218[2] (51st)
 – 2011 census 25,000,000[3]
 – Density 198.3/km2
513.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011[4] estimate
 – Total $45 billion
 – Per capita $2,400
GDP (nominal) 2011[5] estimate
 – Total $32.7 billion
 – Per capita $1,800[6]
HDI (2011) 0.618 (not rated)
Currency North Korean won(₩) (KPW)
Time zone Korea Standard Time (UTC+9)
Date formats yy, yyyy년 mm월 dd일
yy, yyyy/mm/dd (CE–1911CE)
Drives on the right
ISO 3166 code KP
Internet TLD .kp
Calling code 850
^ a. The DPRK Constitution defines the Chairman of the NDC as the “supreme leader” of the DPRK.
^ b. Kim-Jong-un, described as “Supreme Leader of the party, state and army” by North Korean state media on December 29, 2011,[7] was named Supreme Commander of the KPA on December 30, 2011 but has not yet succeeded to his father as Chairman of the NDC and General Secretary of the WPK.[8]
^ c. Kim Yong-nam is the “head of state for foreign affairs”. The position of president (formerly head of state) was written out of the constitution in 1998, andKim Il-sung (who died in 1994) was given the appellationEternal President in its preamble.
This article contains Koreantext. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbolsinstead of Hangul or Hanja.

Coordinates40°00′N 127°00′ENorth Korea (About this sound listen), officially the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRKChosŏn’gŭl: 조선민주주의인민공화국), is a country in East Asia, occupying the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Pyongyang. The Korean Demilitarized Zone serves as the buffer zone between North Korea and South Korea. The Amnok, or Yalu, and the Tumen rivers form the border between North Korea and China. A section of the Tumen River in the far northeast is the border with Russia.

The peninsula was governed by the Korean Empire until it was annexed by Japan after the Russo-Japanese War in 1910. It was divided into Soviet- and American-occupied zones in 1945, after the end of World War II. North Korea refused to participate in a United Nations–supervised election held in the south in 1948, which led to the creation of separate Korean governments for the two occupation zones. North and South Korea each claimed sovereignty over the whole Korean Peninsula, which led to the Korean War of 1950. The Armistice Agreement of 1953 ended the fighting; but the two countries are officially still at war against each other, for a peace treaty was never signed.[9] Both states were accepted into the United Nations in 1991.[10]

North Korea is a single-party state under a united front led by the Korean Workers’ Party (KWP).[11][12][13][14] The country’s government follows the Juche ideology of self-reliance, developed by the country’s first and only PresidentKim Il-sung. After his death, Kim Il-sung was declared the country’s Eternal PresidentJuche became the official state ideology when the country adopted a new constitution in 1972,[15]though Kim Il-sung had been using it to form policy since at least as early as 1955.[16] After the collapse of the Soviet Union and a series of natural disasters, a famine occurred, causing the death of 900,000 to 2 million people.[17] Facing these circumstances, leader Kim Jong-Il adopted Songun, or a “military-first” policy in order to strengthen the country and its government.[18]

Many outside organizations describe North Korea as a totalitariansingle-party Stalinist dictatorship[12][13][19][20][21] with an elaborate cult of personality around the Kim family and one of the lowest-rankinghuman rights records of any country.[22] The North Korean government denies this.[23] North Korea is one of the most militarized nations,[24][25] with a total of 9,495,000 active, reserve, and paramilitarypersonnel. It is a nuclear-weapons state and has an active space program.[26]

Contents

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History

Main article: History of North Korea

Before the division

Main article: History of Korea

Jikji, the first known book printed with movable metal type in 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris.

Korean history begins with the founding of Jo-seon (often known as “Gojoseon” to prevent confusion with another dynasty founded in the 14th century; the prefix Go- means ‘old’ or ‘earlier’) in 2333 BC byDangun, according to Korean foundation mythology.[27] Gojoseon expanded until it controlled northern Korean Peninsula and some parts of Manchuria. After many conflicts with the Chinese Han Dynasty, Gojoseon disintegrated, leading to the Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea period.

In the early centuries of the Common Era, BuyeoOkjeoDongye, and the Samhan confederacy occupied the peninsula and southern Manchuria. Of the various states, GoguryeoBaekje, and Silla grew to control the peninsula as Three Kingdoms of Korea. The unification of the Three Kingdoms by Silla in 676 led to the North South States Period, in which much of the Korean Peninsula was controlled by Unified Silla, while Balhae succeeded the northern parts of Goguryeo.

In Unified Silla, poetry and art was encouraged, and Buddhist culture thrived. Relationships between Korea and China remained relatively peaceful during this time. However, Unified Silla weakened under internal strife, and surrendered to Goryeo in 935. Balhae, Silla’s neighbor to the north, was formed as a successor state to Goguryeo. During its height, Balhae controlled most of Manchuria and parts of Russian Far East. It fell to the Khitan in 926.

The peninsula was united by Emperor Taejo of Goryeo in 936. Like Silla, Goryeo was a highly cultural state and created the Jikji in 1377, using the world’s oldest movable metal type printing press.[28] TheMongol invasions in the 13th century greatly weakened Goryeo. After nearly 30 years of war, Goryeo continued to rule Korea, though as a tributary ally to the Mongols. After the Mongol Empire collapsed, severe political strife followed and the Goryeo Dynasty was replaced by the Joseon Dynasty in 1388 following a rebellion by General Yi Seong-gye.

Gyeongbok Palace is the largest of theFive Grand Palaces built during the Joseon Dynasty.

King Taejo declared the new name of Korea as “Joseon” in reference to Gojoseon, and moved the capital to Seoul. The first 200 years of the Joseon Dynasty were marked by relative peace and saw the creation of Hangul by King Sejong the Great in the 14th century and the rise in influence of Confucianism in the country.

Between 1592 and 1598, the Japanese invaded KoreaToyotomi Hideyoshi led the forces and tried to invade the Asian continent through Korea, but was eventually repelled by the Righteous army and assistance from Ming Dynasty China. This war also saw the rise of Admiral Yi Sun-sin and his renowned “turtle ship“. In the 1620s and 1630s, Joseon suffered from invasions by the Manchu who eventually conquered all of China.

After another series of wars against Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. King Yeongjo and King Jeongjo particularly led a new renaissance of the Joseon Dynasty.

However, the latter years of the Joseon Dynasty were marked by a dependence on China for external affairs and isolation from the outside world. During the 19th century, Korea’s isolationist policy earned it the name the “Hermit Kingdom“. The Joseon Dynasty tried to protect itself against Western imperialism, but was eventually forced to open trade. After the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, Korea was occupied by Japan (1910–1945).

Division of Korea

Main article: Division of Korea

North Korean war monument in Pyongyang.

In the aftermath of the Japanese occupation of Korea which ended with Japan’s defeat in World War II in 1945, Korea was divided at the 38th parallel in accordance with a United Nations arrangement, to be administered by the Soviet Union in the north and the United States in the south. The history of North Korea formally begins with the establishment of the Democratic People’s Republic in 1948.

In August 1945, the Soviet Army established a Soviet Civil Authority to rule the northern portion of the Korean Peninsula until a domestic regime, friendly to the USSR, could be established. This became governed by the Provisional People’s Committee for North Korea through 1948. After the Soviet forces’ departure in 1948, the main agenda in the following years was unification of Korea until the consolidation of Syngman Rhee regime in the South with American military support and the suppression of the October 1948 insurrection ended hopes that the country could be reunified by way of Communist revolution in the South. In 1949, a military intervention into South Korea was considered by Kim Il-sung, but failed to receive support from the Soviet Union, which had played a key role in the establishment of the country.[29]

The withdrawal of most United States forces from the South in June dramatically weakened the Southern regime and encouraged Kim Il-sung to rethink an invasion plan against the South.[29] The idea itself was first rejected by Joseph Stalin but with the development of Soviet nuclear weapons, Mao Zedong‘s victory in China and the Chinese indication that it would send troops and other support to North Korea, Stalin approved an invasion which led to the Korean War.[30]

Korean War

Main article: Korean War

Korean War Armistice Agreement

After Korea was divided by the UN, the two Korean powers both tried to control the whole Korea under their respective governments. This led to escalating border conflicts on the 38th parallel and attempts to negotiate elections for the whole of Korea.[31] These attempts ended when the military of North Korea invaded the South on June 25, 1950, leading to a full-scale civil war. With endorsement from the United Nations, countries allied with the United States intervened on behalf of South Korea. After rapid advances in a South Korean counterattack, North-allied Chinese forces intervened on behalf of North Korea, shifting the balance of the war. Fighting ended on July 27, 1953, with an armistice that approximately restored the original boundaries between North and South Korea. More than 2 million civilians and soldiers were killed in the war.

Although some have referred to the conflict as a civil war, other important factors were involved.[32] The Korean War was also the first armed confrontation of the Cold War and set the standard for many later conflicts. It created the idea of a proxy war, where the two superpowers would fight in another country, forcing the people in that country to suffer most of the destruction and death involved in a war between such large nations. The superpowers avoided descending into an all-out war against one another, as well as the mutual use of nuclear weapons. It also expanded the Cold War, which to that point had mostly been concerned with Europe. A heavily guarded demilitarized zone on the 38th parallel still divides the peninsula, and an anti-Communist and anti-North Korea sentiment remains in South Korea.

Since the Armistice in 1953, relations between the North Korean government and South Korea, the European UnionCanada, the United States, and Japan have remained tense, and hostile incidents occur often.[33][page needed] North and South Korea signed the June 15th North-South Joint Declaration in 2000, in which they promised to seek peaceful reunification.[34] On October 4, 2007, the leaders of North and South Korea pledged to hold summit talks to officially declare the war over and reaffirmed the principle of mutual non-aggression.[35]

Late 20th century

DPRK soldier pointing to the DMZ

The relative peace between the south and the north was interrupted by border skirmishes and assassination attempts. The North failed in several assassination attempts on South Korean leaders, most notably in 1968, 1974 and the Rangoon bombing in 1983; tunnels were frequently found under the DMZ and war nearly broke out over the Axe Murder Incident at Panmunjeom in 1976.[36] In 1973, extremely secret, high-level contacts began to be conducted through the offices of the Red Cross, but ended after the Panmunjeom incident with little progress having been made and the idea that the two Koreas would join international organisations separately.[37]

In the late 1990s, with the South having transitioned to liberal democracy, the success of the Nordpolitik policy, and power in the North having been taken up by Kim Il-sung’s son Kim Jong-il, the two nations began to engage publicly for the first time, with the South declaring its Sunshine Policy.[38][39]

21st century

Globe icon.
The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page(November 2010)

In 2002, United States president George W. Bush labeled North Korea part of an “axis of evil” and an “outpost of tyranny“. The highest-level contact the government has had with the United States was with U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, who made a visit to Pyongyang in 2000,[40] but the two countries do not have formal diplomatic relations.[5] By 2006, approximately 37,000 American soldiers remained in South Korea, although by June 2009 this number had fallen to around 30,000.[41][42] Kim Jong-il privately stated his acceptance of U.S. troops on the peninsula, even after a possible reunification.[43] Publicly, North Korea strongly demands the removal of American troops from Korea.[43]

On June 13, 2009, the Associated Press reported that in response to new UN sanctions, North Korea declared it would progress with its uranium enrichment program. This marked the first time the DPRK has publicly acknowledged that it is conducting a uranium enrichment program.[44] In August 2009, former US president Bill Clinton met with Kim Jong-il to secure the release of two US journalists, who had been sentenced for entering the country illegally.[45] Current U.S. President Barack Obama‘s position towards North Korea has been to resist making deals with North Korea for the sake of defusing tension, a policy known as “strategic patience.”[46]

On November 23, 2010, North Korea fired about 170 rounds of artillery on Yeonpyeong Island and the surrounding waters near the Yellow Sea border, with some 90 shells landing on the island. The attack resulted in the deaths of two marines and two civilians on the South Korean side, and fifteen marines and at least three civilians wounded.[47] The South fired back 80 shells, with unknown effects. North Korean news sources alleged that the North Korean actions, described as “a prompt and powerful physical strike”, were in response to provocation from South Korea that had held an artillery exercise in the disputed waters south of the island.[48]

On the 17th of December 2011 the Supreme Leader of North KoreaKim Jong-il died from a heart attack.[49] His death was reported by the Korean Central News Agency around 08:30 local time with the newscaster announcing his youngest son Kim Jong-un as his successor.

The announcement placed South Korean and United States troops on high alert, with many politicians from the global community stating that Kim’s death leaves a great deal of uncertainty in the country’s future.[49] North Korea was put into a state of semi-alert, with foreigners put under suspicion and asked to leave.[50]

Geography

Lake Ch’ŏnji at Mount Paektu, North Korea’s highest point

North Korea occupies the northern portion of the Korean Peninsula, lying between latitudes 37° and 43°N, and longitudes 124° and 131°E. It covers an area of 120,540 square kilometres (46,541 sq mi). North Korea shares land borders with China and Russia to the north, and borders South Korea along the Korean Demilitarized Zone. To its west are the Yellow Sea and Korea Bay, and to its east lies Japan across theSea of Japan (East Sea of Korea). The highest point in North Korea is Paektu-san Mountain at 2,744 metres (9,003 ft). The longest river is the Amnok River which flows for 790 kilometres (491 mi).[51] The capital and largest city is Pyongyang; other major cities include Kaesong in the south, Sinuiju in the northwest, Wonsan and Hamhung in the east and Chongjin in the northeast.

Topography

Topography of North Korea

Further information: Korean Peninsula

Early European visitors to Korea remarked that the country resembled “a sea in a heavy gale” because of the many successive mountain ranges that crisscross the peninsula.[52] Some 80% of North Korea is composed of mountains and uplands, separated by deep and narrow valleys, with all of the peninsula’s mountains with elevations of 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) or more located in North Korea. The coastal plains are wide in the west and discontinuous in the east. A great majority of the population lives in the plains and lowlands.

The highest point in North Korea is Baekdu Mountain which is a volcanic mountain near the Chinese border with basalt lava plateau with elevations between 1,400 and 2,000 metres (4,600 and 6,600 ft) above sea level.[52] The Hamgyong Range, located in the extreme northeastern part of the peninsula, has many high peaks including Gwanmosan at approximately 1,756 m (5,761 ft).

Other major ranges include the Rangrim Mountains, which are located in the north-central part of North Korea and run in a north-south direction, making communication between the eastern and western parts of the country rather difficult; and the Kangnam Range, which runs along the North Korea–China border. Mount Kumgang, or Diamond Mountain, (approximately 1,638 metres or 5,374 feet) in the Taebaek Range, which extends into South Korea, is famous for its scenic beauty.[52]

For the most part, the plains are small. The most extensive are the Pyongyang and Chaeryong plains, each covering about 500 square kilometres (190 sq mi). Because the mountains on the east coast drop abruptly to the sea, the plains are even smaller there than on the west coast. Unlike neighboring Japan or northern China, North Korea experiences few severe earthquakes.

Climate

Main article: Climate of North Korea

North Korea has a continental climate with four distinct seasons.[53] Long winters bring bitter cold and clear weather interspersed with snow storms as a result of northern and northwestern winds that blow fromSiberia. Average snowfall is 37 days during the winter. The weather is likely to be particularly harsh in the northern, mountainous regions.

Summer tends to be short, hot, humid, and rainy because of the southern and southeastern monsoon winds that bring moist air from the Pacific Ocean. Typhoons affect the peninsula on an average of at least once every summer.[53] Spring and autumn are transitional seasons marked by mild temperatures and variable winds and bring the most pleasant weather. Natural hazards include late spring droughts which often are followed by severe flooding. There are occasional typhoons during the early fall.

North Korea’s climate is relatively temperate. Most of the country is classified as type Dwa in the Köppen climate classification scheme, with warm summers and cold, dry winters. In summer there is a short rainy season called changma.[54] On August 7, 2007, the most devastating floods in 40 years caused the North Korean government to ask for international help. NGOs, such as the Red Cross, asked people to raise funds because they feared a humanitarian catastrophe.[55]

Administrative divisions

Map Namea Chosŏn’gŭl Hanja Administrative Seat
Capital city (chikhalsi)a
1 Pyongyang 평양직할시 平壤直轄市 (Chung-guyok)
Special city (teukbyeolsi)a
2 Rason 라선특별시 羅先特別市 (Rajin-guyok)
Provinces (do)a
3 South Pyongan 평안남도 平安南道 Pyongsong
4 North Pyongan 평안북도 平安北道 Sinuiju
5 Chagang 자강도 慈江道 Kanggye
6 South Hwanghae 황해남도 黃海南道 Haeju
7 North Hwanghae 황해북도 黃海北道 Sariwon
8 Kangwon 강원도 江原道 Wonsan
9 South Hamgyong 함경남도 咸鏡南道 Hamhung
10 North Hamgyong 함경북도 咸鏡北道 Chongjin
11 Ryanggang * 량강도 兩江道 Hyesan
* – Rendered in Southern dialects as “Yanggang” (양강도).

Largest cities of North Korea
2008 Census[3]

Rank City name Administrative division Pop.
Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Hamhung
Hamhung
1 Pyongyang Pyongyang Capital City 3,255,288 Chongjin
Chongjin
Nampho
Nampho
2 Hamhung South Hamgyong Province 768,551
3 Chongjin North Hamgyong Province 667,929
4 Nampho South Pyongan Province 366,815
5 Wonsan Kangwon Province 363,127
6 Sinuiju North Pyongan Province 359,341
7 Tanchon South Hamgyong Province 345,875
8 Kaechon South Pyongan Province 319,554
9 Kaesong North Hwanghae Province 308,440
10 Sariwon North Hwanghae Province 307,764

Government and politics

The Juche Tower (‘Tower ofJuche Idea’).

North Korea is a self-described Juche (self-reliant) state,[56] described by some observers as a de facto absolute monarchy[57][58][59] or “hereditary dictatorship”[60] with a pronounced cult of personality organized aroundKim Il-sung (the founder of North Korea and the country’s only president) and his late son, Kim Jong-il. There are also those who reject the view that North Korea is a communist state, instead claiming that the North Korean leadership uses communism as a justification for their rule.[61][62][63] Following Kim Il-sung’s death in 1994, he was not replaced but instead received the designation of “Eternal President“, and was entombed in the vast Kumsusan Palace of the Sun in central Pyongyang.[64]

Although the office of the President is ceremonially held by the deceased Kim Il-sung,[65][66][67] the Supreme Leader until his death in December 2011 was Kim Jong-il, who was General Secretary of the Workers’ Party of Korea and Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea. The legislature of North Korea is the Supreme People’s Assembly, currently led by Chairman Kim Yong-nam. The other senior government figure is Premier Choe Yong-rim.

The structure of the government is described in the Constitution of North Korea, the latest version of which is from 2009 and officially rejects North Korea’s founding ideology of communism.[68] The governing party by law is the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland, a coalition of the Workers’ Party of Korea and two other smaller parties, the Korean Social Democratic Party and the Chondoist Chongu Party. These parties nominate all candidates for office and hold all seats in the Supreme People’s Assembly; although they have negligible power, as the leader holds autocratic control over the nation’s affairs.

In June 2009, it was reported in South Korean media that intelligence indicated that the country’s next leader would be Kim Jong-un, the youngest of Kim Jong-il’s three sons.[69] This was confirmed on 19 December 2011, following Kim Jong-il’s death.[49][70]

Political expression is tightly controlled in North Korea. Supporters of the government who deviate from the government line are subject to reeducation in sections of labor camps set aside for that purpose. Those who are successfully rehabilitated may reassume responsible government positions on their release.[71] Troublesome political dissidents, factionalists and class enemies, who are considered irredeemable are incarcerated together with any close family members or children born in the camp in “Total Control Zones” for life at hard labor. Labor camps in North Korea are actually areas of the country set aside for that purpose, Camp 22 (also known as Kwan-li-so No.22 Haengyong) is 31 miles by 25 miles with a population of about 50,000. Those who attempt to escape or violate camp rules are executed or sent to a separate prison within the camp. The labor camps are reserved for political prisoners; common criminals are incarcerated in a separate system.[72] There are 6 such areas in the northern and northeastern portion of North Korea.[73]

Factionalists or enemies of class, whoever they are, their seed must be eliminated through three generations. Kim Il Sung (1972)[72]

Foreign relations

Kim Jong-il and Vladimir Putin in 2002.

North Korea has long maintained close relations with the People’s Republic of China and Russia. The fall of communism in eastern Europe in 1989, and the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991, resulted in a devastating drop in aid to North Korea from Russia, although China continues to provide substantial assistance. North Korea continues to have strong ties with its socialist southeast Asian allies in Vietnam andLaos, as well as with Cambodia.[74] North Korea has started installing a concrete and barbed wire fence on its northern border, in response to China’s wish to curb refugees fleeing from North Korea. Previously the border between China and North Korea had only been lightly patrolled.[75]

As a result of the North Korean nuclear weapons program, the Six-party talks were established to find a peaceful solution to the growing tension between the two Korean governments, the Russian Federation, the People’s Republic of China, Japan, and the United States.

On July 17, 2007, United Nations inspectors verified the shutdown of five North Korean nuclear facilities, according to the February 2007 agreement.[76]

On October 4, 2007, South Korean President Roh Moo-Hyun and North Korean leader Kim Jong-il signed an 8-point peace agreement, on issues of permanent peace, high-level talks, economic cooperation, renewal of train, highway and air travel, and a joint Olympic cheering squad.[35]

The United States and South Korea previously designated the North as a state sponsor of terrorism.[77] The 1983 bombing that killed members of the South Korean government and the destruction of a South Korean airliner have been attributed to North Korea.[78] North Korea has also admitted responsibility for the kidnapping of 13 Japanese citizens in the 1970s and 1980s, five of whom were returned to Japan in 2002.[79] On October 11, 2008, the United States removed North Korea from its list of states that sponsor terrorism.[80]

In 2009, relationships between North and South Korea increased in intensity; North Korea had been reported to have deployed missiles,[81] ended its former agreements with South Korea,[82] and threatened South Korea and the United States not to interfere with a satellite launch it had planned.[83] North and South Korea are still technically at war (having never signed a peace treaty after the Korean War) and share the world’s most heavily fortified border.[84] On May 27, 2009, North Korean media declared that the Korean Armistice was no longer valid due to the South Korean government’s pledge to “definitely join” the Proliferation Security Initiative.[citation needed] To further complicate and intensify strain between the two nations, the sinking of the South Korean warship Cheonan in March 2010, killing 46 seamen, is as of May 20, 2010 claimed by a multi-national research team[85] to have been caused by a North Korean torpedo, which the North denies. South Korea agreed with the findings from the research group and President Lee Myung-bak declared in May 2010 that Seoul would cut all trade with North Korea as part of measures primarily aimed at striking back at North Korea diplomatically and financially.[86] As a result of this, North Korea severed all ties, completely abrogated the previous pact of non aggression and expelled all South Koreans from a joint industrial zone in Kaesong.[87] On November 23, 2010, North Korea attacked Yeonpyeong Island, further deteriorating the diplomatic relations with the South and other nations.[88]

Most of the foreign embassies connecting with diplomatic ties to North Korea are situated in Beijing rather than Pyongyang.[89]

Society

Human rights

Sneaker-wearing Korean youth walking in Pyongyang.

A uniformed civilian man riding a bicycle in Pyongyang.

Multiple international human rights organizations accuse North Korea of having one of the worst human rights records of any nation.[90] Amnesty International reports of severe restrictions on the freedom of association, expression and movement, arbitrary detention, torture and other ill-treatment resulting in death, and executions.[91] The organization demands the closure of prison camps, where 200,000 political prisoners and their families exist in “the most inhuman conditions imaginable”.[92] North Koreans have been referred to as “some of the world’s most brutalized people” by Human Rights Watch, due to the severe restrictions placed on their political and economic freedoms.[93]

Bribery became prevalent throughout the country.[94] In the 1990’s just listening to South Korean radio could result in capital punishment.[citation needed] However, many North Koreans now illegally wear clothes of South Korean origin, listen to Southern music, watch South Korean videotapes and even receive Southern broadcasts.[95][96]

Political prison camps

Political prison camps in North Korea

North Korean defectors have testified to the existence of prisons and concentration camps[97] and have reported torture, starvation, rape, murder, medical experimentation, forced labour, and forced abortions.[98] According to Amnesty International around 200,000 prisoners (about 0.85% of the population) are held in six large political prison camps,[99]being in operation since the 1950s. They are forced to work in conditions approaching slavery and are frequently subjected to torture and other cruel, inhumane, and degrading treatment.[100] Camp 14 in Kaechon,[101] Camp 15 in Yodok[102] and Camp 18 in Bukchang[103] are described in detailed testimonies.[98] People suspected not to be loyal to the regime, e. g. because they are Christians or because they criticized the leadership,[99] are deported to these camps without trial,[104] often with their whole family and mostly without any chance to be released.[105] The International Coalition to Stop Crimes Against Humanity in North Korea (ICNK) estimates that over 10,000 people die in North Korean prison camps every year.[106]

Personality cult

The North Korean government exercises control over many aspects of the nation’s culture, and this control is used to perpetuate a cult of personality surrounding Kim Il-sung, and, to a lesser extent, Kim Jong-il. While visiting North Korea in 1979, journalist Bradley Martin noted that nearly all music, art, and sculpture that he observed glorified “Great Leader” Kim Il-sung, whose personality cult was then being extended to his son, “Dear Leader” Kim Jong-il.[107] There is even widespread belief that Kim Il-sung “created the world”, and Kim Jong-il could “control the weather”.[107]

A propaganda poster with Kim Il-sung’s official portrait

The song “No Motherland Without You” (당신이없으면 조국도없다), sung by the North Korean Army Choir, was created especially for Kim Jong-il and is one of the most popular tunes in the country. Kim Il-sung is still officially revered as the nation’s “Eternal President”. Several landmarks in North Korea are named for Kim Il-sung, including Kim Il-sung UniversityKim Il-sung Stadium, and Kim Il-sung Square. Defectors have been quoted as saying that North Korean schools deify both father and son.[108] Kim Il-sung rejected the notion that he had created a cult around himself, and accused those who suggested this of “factionalism“.[107]

Critics maintain this Kim Jong-il personality cult was inherited from his father, Kim Il-sung. Kim Jong-il was often the center of attention throughout ordinary life in the DPRK. His birthday is one of the most important public holidays in the country. On his 60th birthday (based on his official date of birth), mass celebrations occurred throughout the country.[109] Kim Jong-il’s personality cult, although significant, was not as extensive as his father’s. In 2004, some of his official portraits were taken down from public buildings.[110] One point of view is that Kim Jong-il’s cult of personality was solely out of respect for Kim Il-sung or out of fear of punishment for failure to pay homage.[111] Media and government sources from outside of North Korea generally support this view,[112][113][114][115][116] while North Korean government sources say that it is genuine hero worship.[117]

Korean reunification

Main article: Korean reunification

North Korea’s policy is to seek reunification without what it sees as outside interference, through a federal structure retaining each side’s leadership and systems. Both North and South Korea signed the June 15th North–South Joint Declaration in which both sides made promises to seek out a peaceful reunification.[118] The Democratic Federal Republic of Korea is a proposed state first mentioned by then North Korean president Kim Il-sung on October 10, 1980, proposing a federation between North and South Korea in which the respective political systems would initially remain.[119]

Military

Main article: Korean People’s Army

Korean People’s Army soldiers observing the South Korean side of the DMZ

The Korean People’s Army (KPA) is the name for the collective armed personnel of the North Korean military. It has five branches: Ground ForceNaval ForceAir ForceSpecial Operations Force, and Rocket Force. According to the U.S. Department of State, North Korea has the fourth-largest army in the world, at an estimated 1.21 million armed personnel, with about 20% of men aged 17–54 in the regular armed forces.[120] North Korea has the highest percentage of military personnel per capita of any nation in the world, with approximately one enlisted soldier for every 25 citizens.[24][121]

Koksan, one of North Korea’s principal heavy artillery pieces. This example was captured in Iraq.

Military strategy is designed for insertion of agents and sabotage behind enemy lines in wartime,[120] with much of the KPA’s forces deployed along the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone. The Korean People’s Army operates a very large amount of equipment, including 4,060 tanks, 2,500 APCs, 17,900 artillery pieces, 11,000 air defence guns and some 10,000 MANPADS and anti-tank guided missiles[122] in the Ground force; at least 915 vessels in the Navy and 1,748 aircraft in the Air Force,[123] of which 478 are fighters and 180 are bombers.[124] North Korea also has the largest special forces in the world, as well as the largest submarine fleet.[125] The equipment is a mixture of World War II vintage vehicles and small arms, widely proliferated Cold War technology, and more modern Soviet or locally produced weapons. In line with its asymmetric warfare strategy, North Korea has also developed a wide range of unconventional techniques and equipment, such as GPS jammers,[126] stealth paint,[127] midget submarines and human torpedoes,[128] a vast array of chemical and biological weapons,[129] and anti-personnel lasers.[130] According to official North Korean media, military expenditures for 2010 amount to 15.8% of the state budget.[131]

North Korea has active nuclear and ballistic missile weapons programs and has been subject to United Nations Security Council resolutions 1695 of July 2006, 1718 of October 2006, and 1874 of June 2009, for carrying out both missile and nuclear tests. North Korea probably has fissile material for up to nine nuclear weapons,[132] and has the capability to deploy nuclear warheads on intermediate-range ballistic missiles.[133]

Economy

Main article: Economy of North Korea

An image of the Korean Peninsula at night rendered fromDMSP observations. The disparity in illumination levels is an indication of the differences between the North and South in population and, mostly, energy usage.[134][135]

North Korea has an industrialised, near-autarkic, highly centralized command economy. Of the five remaining Communist states in the world, North Korea is one of only two (along with Cuba) with an almost entirely government-planned, state-owned economy. The Central Planning Committee prepares, supervises and implements economic plans, while a General Bureau of Provincial Industry in each region is responsible for the management of local manufacturing facilities, production, resource allocation and sales.[136]

North Korea’s isolation policy means that international trade is highly restricted. North Korea passed a law in 1984 allowing for foreign investment through joint ventures,[137] but failed to attract any significant investment. In 1991, it established the Rason Economic Special Zone,[138] in an attempt to attract foreign investment from China and Russia. Chinese and Russian companies have purchased rights to use the ports at Rason. Chinese investors are renovating a road from Rason to China,[139] and Russian railway workers are renovating the railway from Rason to Russia, from where it continues onto the Trans-Siberian Railway.[140]

Until 1998, the United Nations published HDI and GDP per capita figures for North Korea, which stood at a medium level of human development at 0.766 (ranked 75th) and a GDP per capita of $4,058.[141] The average salary was about $47 per month in 2004.[142] The average official salary in 2011 was equivalent to $2 per month while the actual monthly income seems to be around $15 because most North Koreans earn money in illegal small businesses: trade, subsistence farming, and handicrafts. The illegal economy is dominated by women because men have to attend their places of official work even though most of the factories are non-functioning.[143] It is estimated that in the early 2000s, the average North Korean family drew some 80% of its income from small businesses that are legal in market economies but illegal in North Korea.[144]

Despite substantial economic problems, quality of life was improving and wages were rising steadily in 2007.[145] Small-scale private markets, known as janmadang, exist throughout the country and provide the population with imported food and commodities ranging from cosmetics to motorcycles in exchange for money.[146][147] In 2009, the government carried out a currency redenomination with the aim to curb free market activity across the country, but the attempt failed, causing inflation rates to skyrocket, and eventually led to the lifting of the ban on free market trade.[148]

Food rations, housing, healthcare, and education are offered from the state for free,[149] and the payment of taxes has been abolished since April 1, 1974.[150] In order to increase productivity from agriculture and industry, since the 1960s the North Korean government has introduced a number of management systems such as the Taean work system.[151] In the 21st century, North Korea’s GDP growth has been slow but steady, although in recent years, growth has gradually accelerated to 3.7% in 2008, the fastest pace in almost a decade, largely due to a sharp growth of 8.2% in the agricultural sector.[152]

GDP Growth by year[152][153]
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
1.3% 3.7% 1.2% 1.8% 2.2% 1.0% 1.6% 1.8% 3.7% 3.7%

Hungju collective chicken farm, Chagang Province.

According to estimates from 2002, the dominant sector in the North Korean economy is industry (43.1%), followed by services (33.6%) and agriculture (23.3%). In 2004, it was estimated that agriculture employed 37% of the workforce while industry and services employed the remaining 63%.[5] Major industries include military products, machine building, electric power, chemicals, mining, metallurgy, textiles, food processing and tourism.Iron ore and coal production are among the few sectors where North Korea performs significantly better than its southern neighbour – the DPRK produces about 10 times larger amounts of each resource.[154]

Rice yields are about 2.8 tonnes per hectare, about half that in most countries, with soil degradation, lack of fertilisers, and limited mechanisation blamed.[155] In 2005, North Korea was ranked by the FAO as an estimated 10th in the production of fresh fruit[156] and as an estimated 19th in the production of apples.[157] It has substantial natural resources and is the world’s 18th largest producer of iron and zinc, having the22nd largest coal reserves in the world. It is also the 15th largest fluorite producer and 12th largest producer of copper and salt in Asia. Other major natural resources in production include leadtungstengraphite,magnesitegoldpyritesfluorspar, and hydropower.[5]

Private commerce

Generic paracetamol tablets made in the DPRK by a joint venture company

FamilyMart store in Kaesong Industrial Region, North Korea’s light industry center.

In 1991, North Korea started experimenting with private capitalism in the Rajin-Sonbong Economic Special Zone, and in 2002 also set up the Kaesong Industrial Region.[158] A small number of other areas have been designated as Special Administrative Regions. China and South Korea are the biggest trade partners of North Korea, with trade with China increasing 15% to US$1.6 billion in 2005, and trade with South Korea increasing 50% to over 1 billion for the first time in 2005.[159] China is North Korea’s closest economic partner, with 73% of North Korea’s foreign trade being conducted with this country.[160]

In 2000, Centre for the Study of the Capitalist System was established.[161] Increasingly more foreign-invested joint ventures have been set up since 2002.[162] The Pyongyang Business School was established by the Swiss government to help teach students business management.[163]

A small number of capitalistic elements are gradually spreading from the trial area, including a number of advertising billboards along certain highways. Recent visitors have reported that the number of open-air farmers’ markets has increased in Kaesong and Pyongyang, as well as along the China-North Korea border, bypassing the food rationing system. In addition to food aid, China reportedly provides an estimated 80 to 90 percent of North Korea’s oil imports at “friendly prices” that are sharply lower than the world market price.[164]

North Korea also has a cartoon animation industry, sub-contracting work from South Korean animation studios.[165]

Tourism

Main article: Tourism in North Korea

The Mount Kumgang Tourist Region was popular among South Korean tourists until its suspension in 2008

Tourism in North Korea is organized by the state-owned Korea International Travel Company. All tourists/visitors are constantly accompanied by one or two “guides”, who usually speak the tourist’s native language. While tourism has increased over the last few years, tourists from Western countries remain few.

Most visitors come from China, Russia, and Japan. Russian citizens from the Asian part of Russia prefer North Korea as a tourist destination because of the relatively low prices, lack of pollution, and warmer climate. For citizens of South Korea, it is almost impossible to get a visa to North Korea; they can get “entry permits” to special tourist areas designated for South Koreans, such as Kaesong. United States citizens were also subject to visa restrictions, allowed to visit only during the yearly Arirang Festival; these restrictions were lifted in January 2010. Fewer than 2,500 United States citizens have visited North Korea since 1953.[166]

In the area of Mount Kumgang, the company Hyundai established and operates a special tourist area. Travel to this area is possible for South Koreans and United States citizens, but only in organized groups from South Korea. A special administrative region, the Mount Kumgang Tourist Region, exists for this purpose. Trips to the region were suspended after a South Korean woman who wandered into a controlled military zone was shot dead by border guards in late 2008.[167] When tours had not resumed by May 2010, North Korea announced that it would seize South Korean real estate assets in the region.[168]

Famine

Main article: North Korean famine

In the 1990s North Korea faced significant economic disruptions, including a series of natural disasters, economic mismanagement and serious resource shortages after the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. These resulted in a shortfall of staple grain output of more than 1 million tons from what the country needs to meet internationally accepted minimum dietary requirements.[169] The North Korean famine known as “Arduous March” resulted in the deaths of between 300,000 and 800,000 North Koreans per year during the three year famine, peaking in 1997.[17] The deaths were most likely caused by famine-related illnesses such as pneumoniatuberculosis, and diarrhea rather than starvation.[17]

In 2006, Amnesty International reported that a national nutrition survey conducted by the North Korean government, the World Food Programme, and UNICEF found that 7% of children were severely malnourished; 37% were chronically malnourished; 23.4% were underweight; and one in three mothers was malnourished and anaemic as the result of the lingering effect of the famine. The inflation caused by some of the 2002 economic reforms, including the Songun or “Military-first” policy, was cited for creating the increased price of basic foods.[170]

The history of Japanese assistance to North Korea has been marked with challenges; from a large pro-Pyongyang community of Koreans in Japan to public outrage over the 1998 North Korean missile launch and revelations regarding the abduction of Japanese citizens.[171] In June 1995 an agreement was reached that the two countries would act jointly.[171] South Korea would provide 150,000 MT of grain in unmarked bags, and Japan would provide 150,000 MT gratis and another 150,000 MT on concessional terms.[171] In October 1995 and January 1996, North Korea again approached Japan for assistance. On these two occasions, both of which came at crucial moments in the evolution of the famine, opposition from both South Korea and domestic political sources quashed the deals.[171]

Beginning in 1997, the U.S. began shipping food aid to North Korea through the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) to combat the famine. Shipments peaked in 1999 at nearly 700,000 tons making the U.S. the largest foreign aid donor to the country at the time. Under the Bush Administration, aid was drastically reduced year after year from 350,000 tons in 2001 to 40,000 in 2004.[172] The Bush Administration took criticism for using “food as a weapon” during talks over the North’s nuclear weapons program, but insisted the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) criteria were the same for all countries and the situation in North Korea had “improved significantly since its collapse in the mid-1990s.” Agricultural production had increased from about 2.7 million metric tons in 1997 to 4.2 million metric tons in 2004.[173]

Media and telecommunications

Media

North Korean media are under some of the strictest government control in the world. The North Korean constitution provides for freedom of speech and the press; but the government prohibits the exercise of these rights in practice. In its 2010 report,Reporters without Borders ranked freedom of the press in North Korea as 177th out of 178, above only that of Eritrea.[174] Only news that favors the regime is permitted, while news that covers the economic and political problems in the country, and foreign criticism of the government, are not allowed.[175] The media upheld the personality cult of Kim Jong-un, regularly reporting on his daily activities. The main news provider to media in the DPRK is the Korean Central News Agency.

North Korea has 12 principal newspapers and 20 major periodicals, all of varying periodicity and all published in Pyongyang.[176] Newspapers include the Rodong SinmunJoson InmingunMinju Choson, and Rodongja Sinmum. No private press is known to exist.[177]

In January 2012, the Associated Press opened a bureau in Pyongyang for full news coverage within North Korea.[178] [179]

Telephones and Internet

North Korea has an adequate telephone system, with 1.18 million fixed lines available in 2008.[180] However, most phones are only installed for senior government officials. Someone wanting a phone installed must fill out a form indicating their rank, why he wants a phone, and how he will pay for it.[181] The number of mobile phones in Pyongyang rose from 3,000 in 2002 to approximately 20,000 in 2004.[182] In June 2004, mobile phones were forbidden again.[183] The prohibition lasted until 2008, when a new,3G network, Koryolink, was built through a joint venture with Orascom Telecom Holding, of Egypt. In May 2010, more than 120,000 North Koreans owned mobile phones.[184] By September 2010, the number of subscribers reached 301,000.[185] By August 2011, the number of mobile-phone subscribers had increased to 660,000 users.[186] By December 2011, the number of subscribers was reported as 900,000.[187]

North Korea’s first Internet café opened in 2002 as a joint venture with a South Korean Internet company, Hoonnet. Ordinary North Koreans do not have access to the global Internet network, but are provided with a nationwide, public-use Intranet service called Kwangmyong, which features domestic news, an e-mail service, and censored information from foreign websites (mostly scientific).[188]

Transportation

Puhŭng station of the Pyongyang Metro.

Two of the few ways to enter North Korea are over the Sino-Korea Friendship Bridge or via Panmunjeom, the former crossing the Amnok River and the latter crossing the Demilitarized Zone.

On October 13, 2011 a train from the Russian border settlement of Khasan made an inaugural run to Rajin in North Korea. It run a 54-kilometer along a newly repaired link of reconstruction all the Trans-Korean railfor its further integration into the Trans-Siberian railroad.[189]

Private cars in North Korea are a rare sight, but as of 2008 some 70% of households used bicycles, which also play an increasingly important role in small-scale private trade.[190] Very few cars and light trucks are made in a joint-venture between Pyeonghwa Motors of South Korea, and the North Korean Ryonbong General Corp at a facility in Nampo North Korea.[191] Another local producer of vehicles is Sungri Motor Plant, which manufactures civilian vehicles and heavy trucks.

There is a mix of locally built and imported trolleybuses and trams in urban centers in North Korea. Earlier fleets were obtained in Europe and China, but the trade embargo has forced North Korea to build their own vehicles.

Rail transport

A train in North Korea

Choson Cul Minzuzui Inmingonghoagug is the only rail operator in North Korea. It has a network of 5,200 km (3,200 mi) of track with 4,500 km (2,800 mi) in standard gauge.[192] There is a small narrow gauge railway in operation in Haeju peninsula.[192] The railway fleet consists of a mix of electric and steam locomotives. Cars are mostly made in North Korea using Soviet and Chinese designs. There are some locomotives from Imperial Japan, the United States, and Europe remaining in use. Second-hand Chinese locomotives (early DF4Bs, BJ Hydraulics, etc.) have also been spotted in active service.

People traveling from the capital Pyongyang to other regions in North Korea typically travel by rail. But in order to travel out of Pyongyang, people need an official travel certificate, ID, and a purchased ticket in advance. Due to lack of maintenance on the infrastructure and vehicles, the travel time by rail is increasing. It has been reported that the 120 mile (193 km) trip from Pyongyang to Kaesong can take up to 6 hours.[193]

Marine transport

A North Korean cargo ship off the coast of Somalia

Water transport on the major rivers and along the coasts plays a growing role in freight and passenger traffic. Except for the Yalu and Taedong rivers, most of the inland waterways, totaling 2,253 kilometres (1,400 mi), are navigable only by small boats. Coastal traffic is heaviest on the eastern seaboard, whose deeper waters can accommodate larger vessels. The major ports are Nampho on the west coast and Rajin,ChongjinWonsan, and Hamhung on the east coast. The country’s harbor loading capacity in the 1990s was estimated at almost 35 million tons a year.[194]

In the early 1990s, North Korea possessed an oceangoing merchant fleet, largely domestically produced, of sixty-eight ships (of at least 1,000 gross-registered tons), totaling 465,801 gross-registered tons (709,442 metric tons deadweight (DWT)), which includes fifty-eight cargo ships and two tankers. There is a continuing investment in upgrading and expanding port facilities, developing transportation—particularly on the Taedong River—and increasing the share of international cargo by domestic vessels.[195]

Air transport

The departure lounge at Sunan International Airport

North Korea’s international air connections are limited. There are regularly scheduled flights from the Sunan International Airport – 24 kilometres (15 mi) north of Pyongyang – to MoscowKhabarovskVladivostokBangkokBeijingDalianKuala LumpurShanghaiShenyang along with seasonal services to Singapore and charter flights from Sunan to numerous Asian and European destinations including Tokyo and Nagoya. Regular charters to existing scheduled services are operated as per demand. An agreement to initiate a service between Pyongyang and Tokyo was signed in 1990. Internal flights are available between PyongyangHamhungHaeju,KaesongKanggyeKiljuNampoSinuijuSamjiyonWonsan, and Chongjin.[196]

All civil aircraft are operated by Air Koryo: 38 aircraft in 2010, which were purchased from the Soviet Union and Russia. From 1976 to 1978, four Tu-154 jets were added to the 7 of propeller-driven An-24s and 2 Ilyushin Il-18’s afterwards adding four long range Ilyushin Il-62M, three Ilyushin Il-76MD large cargo aircraft. In 2008 a long range Tupolev Tu-204-300’s purchased along with a larger version the Tupolev Tu-204-100B in 2010.[194]

Demographics

Population pyramid of North Korea

Prefabricated apartments house a large portion of the population. Housing in North Korea is free, but cramped as with many other Asian nations.[197]

North Korea’s population of roughly 24 million is one of the most ethnically and linguistically homogeneous in the world, with very small numbers of Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, South Korean, and European expatriate minorities.

According to the CIA World Factbook, North Korea’s life expectancy was 63.8 years in 2009, a figure roughly equivalent to that of Pakistan and Burma and slightly lower than Russia.[198] Infant mortality stood at a high level of 51.3, which is 2.5 times higher than that of China, 5 times that of Russia, 12 times that of South Korea.[199]

According to the UNICEF “The State of the world’s Children 2003” North Korea appears ranked at the 73rd place (with first place having the highest mortality rate), between Guatemala (72nd) and Tuvalu(74th).[199][200] North Korea’s Total fertility rate is relatively low and stood at 2.0 in 2009, comparable to those of the United States and France.[201]

Language

Main article: Korean language

North Korea shares the Korean language with South Korea. There are dialect differences within both Koreas, but the border between North and South does not represent a major linguistic boundary. While prevalent in the South, the adoption of modern terms from foreign languages has been limited in North Korea. Hanja (Chinese characters) are no longer used in North Korea (ever since 1949), although still occasionally used in South Korea. In South Korea, knowledge of Chinese writing is viewed as a measure of intellectual achievement and level of education. Both Koreas share the phonetic writing system calledChosongul in the north and Hangul south of the DMZ. The official Romanization differs in the two countries, with North Korea using a slightly modified McCune-Reischauer system, and the South using the Revised Romanization of Korean. The move toward prohibiting both Roman and Chinese based characters in North Korea has led to a number of words and phrases not common in the southern half of the peninsula or in Korean communities abroad.

Religion

Both Koreas share a Buddhist and Confucian heritage and a recent history of Christian and Cheondoism (“religion of the Heavenly Way”) movements. The North Korean constitution states that freedom of religion is permitted.[202] According to the Western standards of religion, the majority of the North Korean population could be characterized as irreligious. However, the cultural influence of such traditional religions as Buddhism and Confucianism still have an effect on North Korean spiritual life.[203][204][205]

Nevertheless, Buddhists in North Korea reportedly fare better than other religious groups, particularly Christians, who are said to face persecution by the authorities. Buddhists are given limited funding by the government to promote the religion, because Buddhism played an integral role in traditional Korean culture.[206]

An ancient relief image of the Buddha, Mount Kumgang

According to Human Rights Watch, free religious activities no longer exist in North Korea, as the government sponsors religious groups only to create an illusion of religious freedom.[207] According to Religious Intelligence the situation of religion in North Korea is the following:[208]

  • Irreligion: 15,460,000 (64.3% of population, the vast majority of which are adherents of the Juche philosophy)
  • Korean shamanism: 3,846,000 adherents (16% of population)
  • Cheondoism: 3,245,000 adherents (13.5% of population)
  • Buddhism: 1,082,000 adherents (4.5% of population)
  • Christianity: 406,000 adherents (1.7% of population)

Pyongyang was the center of Christian activity in Korea until 1945. From the late forties 166 priests and other religious figures were killed or disappeared in concentration camps, including Francis Hong Yong-ho, bishop of Pyongyang[209] and all monks of Tokwon abbey.[210] No Catholic priest survived the persecution, all churches were destroyed and the government never allowed any foreign priest to set up in North Korea.[211]

Today, four state-sanctioned churches exist, which freedom of religion advocates say are showcases for foreigners.[212][213] Official government statistics report that there are 10,000 Protestants and 4,000 Roman Catholics in North Korea.[214]

According to a ranking published by Open Doors, an organization that supports persecuted Christians, North Korea is currently the country with the most severe persecution of Christians in the world.[215] Open Doors estimates that 50000 – 70000 Christians are detained in North Korean prison camps.[216] Human rights groups such as Amnesty International also have expressed concerns about religious persecution in North Korea.[217]

Education

A young girl in a school in Mangyongdae

Education in North Korea is free of charge,[218] compulsory until the secondary level, and is controlled by the government. The state also used to provide school uniforms free of charge until the early 1990s.[219]Heuristics is actively applied in order to develop the independence and creativity of students.[220] Compulsory education lasts eleven years, and encompasses one year of preschool, four years of primary education and six years of secondary education. The school curriculum has both academic and political content.[221]

Primary schools are known as people’s schools, and children attend them from the age of 6 to 9. Then from age 10 to 16, they attend either a regular secondary school or a special secondary school, depending on their specialties.

Higher education is not compulsory in North Korea. It is composed of two systems: academic higher education and higher education for continuing education. The academic higher education system includes three kinds of institutions: universitiesprofessional schools, and technical schoolsGraduate schools for master’s and doctoral level studies are attached to universities, and are for students who want to continue their education. Two notable universities in the DPRK are the Kim Il-sung University and Pyongyang University of Science and Technology, both in Pyongyang. The former, founded in October 1946, is an elite institution whose enrollment of 16,000 full- and part-time students in the early 1990s occupies, in the words of one observer, the “pinnacle of the North Korean educational and social system.”[222]

North Korea is one of the most literate countries in the world, with an average literacy rate of 99%.[5]

Health care

A dental cabinet at one of North Korea’s major hospitals

North Korea has a national medical service and health insurance system.[223] North Korea spends 3% of its gross domestic product on health care. Beginning in the 1950s, the DPRK put great emphasis on healthcare, and between 1955 and 1986, the number of hospitals grew from 285 to 2,401, and the number of clinics – from 1,020 to 5,644.[224] There are hospitals attached to factories and mines. Since 1979 more emphasis has been put on traditional Korean medicine, based on treatment with herbs and acupuncture.

North Korea’s healthcare system has been in a steep decline since the 1990s due to natural disasters, economic problems, and food and energy shortages. Many hospitals and clinics in North Korea now lack essential medicines, equipment, running water and electricity.[225]

Almost 100% of the population has access to water and sanitation, but it is not completely potable. Infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, malaria, and hepatitis B, are considered to be endemic to the country.[226] Life expectancy in North Korea is 63.8 years, occupying the 170th place in the world, according to 2009 estimates.[198]

Among other health problems, many North Korean citizens suffer from the after effects of malnutrition, caused by famines related to the failure of its food distribution program and “military first” policy. A 1998 United Nations (UN) World Food Program report revealed that 60% of children suffered from malnutrition, and 16% were acutely malnourished. As a result, those who suffered during the disaster have ongoing health problems.

Culture and arts

Kimchaek University e-Library in Pyongyang

Scene from the Mass Games

A drawing in one of the chambers of theGoguryeo tombs.

North Korea shares its traditional culture with South Korea, but the two Koreas have developed distinct contemporary forms of culture since the peninsula was divided in 1945. Historically, while the culture of Korea has been influenced by that of neighbouring China, it has nevertheless managed to develop a unique and distinct cultural identity from its larger neighbour.[227]

Literature and arts in North Korea are state-controlled, mostly through the Propaganda and Agitation Department or the Culture and Arts Department of the Central Committee of the KWP.[228]

Korean culture came under attack during the Japanese rule from 1910 to 1945. Japan enforced a cultural assimilation policy. During the Japanese rule, Koreans were encouraged to learn and speak Japanese, adopt the Japanese family name system and Shinto religion, and were forbidden to write or speak the Korean language in schools, businesses, or public places.[229] In addition, the Japanese altered or destroyed various Korean monuments including Gyeongbok Palace and documents which portrayed the Japanese in a negative light were revised.

In July 2004, the Complex of Goguryeo Tombs became the first site in the country to be included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.

In February 2008, The New York Philharmonic Orchestra became the first US orchestra to perform in North Korea,[230] albeit for a handpicked “invited audience.”[231] The concert was broadcast on national television.[232] The Christian rock band Casting Crowns played at the annual Spring Friendship Arts Festival in April 2007, held in Pyongyang.[233]

A popular event in North Korea is the Mass Games. The most recent and largest Mass Games was called “Arirang“. It was performed six nights a week for two months, and involved over 100,000 performers. Attendees to this event in recent years report that the anti-West sentiments have been toned down compared to previous performances. The Mass Games involve performances of dance, gymnastics, and choreographic routines which celebrate the history of North Korea and the Workers’ Party Revolution. The Mass Games are held in Pyongyang at various venues (varying according to the scale of the Games in a particular year) including the Rungrado May Day Stadium, which is the largest stadium in the world with a capacity of 150,000 people.

North Korea employs artists to produce art for export at the Mansudae Art Studio in Pyongyang. Over 1,000 artists are employed. Products include water colors, ink drawings, posters, mosaics and embroidery.Socialist realism is the approved style with North Korea being portrayed as prosperous and progressive and its citizens as happy and enthusiastic. Traditional Korean designs and themes are present most often in the embroidery. The artistic and technical quality of the works produced is very high but other than a few wealthy South Korean collectors there is a limited market due to public taste and reluctance of states and collectors to financially support the regime.[234]

Sports

Main article: Sport in North Korea

North Korea (in red) playing against Brazil in the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa.

Perhaps the most well known sporting event in North Korea is the annual Arirang Festival. The main attraction of Arirang is the mass gymnastics display. In football, fifteen clubs compete in the DPR Korea League level-one and vie for both the Technical Innovation Contests and the Republic Championship. The national football team, Chollima, compete in the AFC and are ranked 105 by FIFA as of 26 May 2010. The team competed in the finals of the FIFA World Cup in 1966 and 2010. In hockey, North Korea has a men’s team that is ranked 43rd out of 49[235] and competes in Division II. The women’s team is ranked 21 out of 34[236] and competes in Division II.

North Korea has been competing in the Olympics since 1964 and debuted at the summer games in 1972 by taking home five medals, including one gold. The IOC Code is PRK.

North Korea boycotted the 1988 Summer Olympics in neighboring Seoul.

At the Athens Games in 2004, the North and South marched together in the opening and closing ceremonies under the Unification Flag, but competed separately. To date, North Korea has medaled in every summer Olympics in which they have participated.

The martial art taekwondo originated in Korea. In the 1950s and 60s, modern rules were standardised and taekwondo became an official Olympic sport in 2000. Other Korean martial arts include taekkyeon,hapkidotang soo dokuk sool wonkumdo and subak.

See also

 Media related to North Korea at Wikimedia Commons

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高富帅还是那个高富帅,DS在哪都是DS——《国家精英》札记

April 22, 2012 Leave a comment

来源: 刘正的日志

 

最近花了不少时间看完了布尔迪厄(Bourdieu)的《国家精英》(la noblesse d’etat),商务版600多页艰涩晦口的译文。杨亚平女士翻译时的艰辛,实在需要感激,不然对于一个没学过社会学的人,这无异于天书。

  本书的题目就很有意思,法语里noblesse和aristocrate有着稍稍的不同,前者是包含了佩剑贵族和穿袍贵族的一整个利益集团,而后者才是真正的“贵族精英”(这词源自亚里士多德,读起来很像吧),所以这个题目其实是暗含贬义的。这本书仿佛是《区隔》一书的应用,他讨论了一个我们必须关心的问题:既然每个人在权利/经济/文化场域的位置很大程度上受弗洛伊德式的“童年阴影”所困,那大学教育,这个被寄予“鲤鱼跳龙门”意味的机构,是否可以促进阶层间的流动呢?

而布尔迪厄的回答是:too simple, sometimes naïve!

要看清:能跳上龙门的,很多都是龙子龙孙,或是披着龙皮的鱼,大部分鱼连跳的机会都没有。所以众DS,退却吧!

大学,尤其是那些老牌名校,一直被冠以救世学校(Ecole liberatric)的光环,这里的救世是两层含义:“这里保存了科学和文化的精髓”以及“这里是平民子弟凭着才智打进中产阶级的阶梯”,当然,精髓不精髓的无所谓,后者才是实实在在的。挤破头的高考简直是场噩梦,但是从中一路杀出的“才子们”,他们凭借的真的是康德所称“天赋的缪斯”吗?我们可以看看大学入学考试考得是啥:逻辑分析能力+语言组织能力+超强记忆力。其实这三项和中世纪的贵族公学的要求类似:推演+辩论/演讲+博学。而这三项,与其说是源自个人的天赋,不如说是来自家庭的熏陶,或者更多时候在中国,是用钱堆出来的成长环境。一个真正blue blood的高富帅,在DS们小时候玩泥巴的时候,正在玩钢琴;DS们不知所云地默写课本时,人家听着蓝调在看原版小说;DS们在破教室苦苦背单词的时候,高富帅们在名牌公学和洋妞调情;DS们课堂上憋不出一句话的时候,高富帅们在高级会所和“叔叔阿姨”们谈笑风声。一个DS努力学习伪装出来的“素质”,高富帅们不经意间用平日里的“素养”就可以对付了。更何况凭借着家庭的经济资本和人脉信息上的优势,还可以选择short cuts (出国/艺术生/竞赛),而DS只知道为“再多考一分”拼命。你还别嫉妒,人家的才智是源自生活的,而不是努力训练遮掩出来的“高仿”。如今所提倡的“素质教育”/中国常青藤联考,便是有意将这种入学偏好合法化。“素质”这个东西,显然不是贫寒的家境负担的起的,于是大学的筛选,又对高富帅们开了一盏绿灯。

所以“大学录取”这第一道关口,便已经不是自由通行的“直通车”了,与其说是“救世学校”不如说是“庇护学校”:他只筛选出那些本来就属于中产以上阶层的“二十岁的加图们”,以及那些具有坚忍品质可以顺从地做“家臣”的平民子弟:这个群体作为高富帅们的外围,将是未来的社会构架里连接不同场域顶点,防止社会断裂的要素。当然幸运踏入“高富帅乐园”的DS,往往羞于承认自己的尴尬地位。

但是当丘比特万箭齐发时,隐藏在名校里的DS们就暴露了。高中生物里说过一个物种的产生,先是要靠混血,然后便是隔离了。大学的录取是对新一代基因的筛选和混杂,而大学的“内婚”便是一个有趣的隔离现象。在18-22这么个春心荡漾的年纪把一群“未来的精英们”圈起来,目的无非是最好都intra-college coupling掉。如此一来高富帅们的爹妈可以欣慰:家族血统贬低的可能性下降了,说白了便是没有穷亲戚,一身轻松啊。这方面一个有意思的隐喻便是霍格沃茨:在这里,和布莱克家族有血缘的波特家族和悠久的纯血韦斯莱家族实现了联姻,而韦斯莱家族更是将平民中涌现的天才赫敏纳入家族旗下。《龙族》里凯撒和诺诺亦是如此。所谓的自由恋爱,背后还是精心布置的家族安排。一无所有的男DS们,即便有着极佳的学术资本也是徒劳,而女生则不然:因为娶一个平民的女儿并不会分割家族的资产还能够更新家族的血液,而摊上一个DS女婿,那家族就得出大血了。即便是入赘,家族也需要给他添补经济/权利资本才能够介绍入本阶层的圈子里,总之是桩有风险的买卖。

再来看看大学里教的是什么?可以说,大学里80%的课程,在毕业后的名利场中都没用:有的是太迂腐,有的太高深用不到。那为什么还要开这些令人景仰的课程呢?”贴金”这个词最形象了。越是技术性,实用性,培养技能的知识,便越是限制了一个人所被承认的职位类型,也就是说,以后你就对着这机器/报表/数字过一辈子吧。越是笼统的,博学的,培养素质的知识,便具有更大的flexibility。什么是flexibility?对于高富帅而言,便是占据企业/政府的那些看了名字也不知道负责什么的高位,对于DS便是刷盘子。所以搞技术是永远没有出头之日的,至于选择商科/文科和高富帅争食,舔盘子的可能性也是要考虑到的。但是大学为了显示高富帅们不同于职校/专科学生的博学,一个劲地要弄通识教育。

比如,很多的大学现在开始鼓吹leadership。对于leader的子女,这是废话:这都是与生俱来的,呼吸中都透着一股leader范。所以学校可以名正言顺地安慰DS:看到么,你虽然学业资本不错,可是没有leader范啊,这也是一种重要的素质啊。所以给人家打工,没什么好抱怨的。而对于“要么像拿破仑那样用大炮轰进巴黎,要么像老鼠那样钻进去”的有志青年们,如何把自己“漂白”便是十分必要了,就像是ecole poly学生中的箴言:“立刻抛弃你那难听的乡音,从今天起像个巴黎人那样说话”。乡音只是个象征而已,总之来源于外省贫寒阶层的一切不堪的回忆都要完全去除。当高富帅们偶尔陶醉于农村重金属时,披着龙皮的鲤鱼们坚定地只听爵士和充满小资趣味(总之准则是HR和总管们最爱)的流行音乐。当高富帅们搞不清自己穿的是什么牌子时,鲤鱼们开始搜集名牌手表/衬衣和古龙水的商标,YY着以后都要穿在身上。当高富帅们二话没说开始环球旅行时,鲤鱼们紧随其后,开始出没在最有名的景点和最有名的商场,总之,有名就行了。比巴黎人更巴黎人,然后才有望被那个向往已久的群体所接受。有意思的是,先一步踏入“中产阶级”的鲤鱼们,对于暴发户反而有着更切骨的仇恨。因为相信自己是凭着学业资本和“素质”的训练才拿到到今天的成就,他们形成了一个新的“学院精英”集团,并且逐步和原有的“经济贵族”们融合,共同捍卫一个由经济资本维系,权利资本捍卫,和学业资本掩饰的“支配阶层”。

但是并非所有的DS都能成功地钻进去,于是出现了一个有意思的现象:出身贫寒的名校门徒,对于学校有着更深的依恋,这一群体中选择去考大中学教师学衔(Agrégation)的比例也要见多。有人戏谑“在哪里可以汇聚最多的巴黎高师毕业生?不是外交部的鸡尾酒宴,也不是金融圈的俱乐部,而是外省各大学校代表来巴黎开研讨会的时候”。也难怪,他们所唯一骄傲的学业资本完全仰赖于“伟大的教育”,如果只凭经济/权利资本打拼,毕业一出校门挂掉的可能性很大。对于外省出身不高的高师学生,选择回老家的民政和文化机构“隐居”,或者一所普通大学的教职,不失为明哲保身之途,至少百年之后那些“国家精英”的同学会在悼词里假惺惺地怀念“虽然他的英才足以在巴黎闯得一番天地,但对于宁静乡间和家庭温馨的钟爱使他选择了高蹈隐居,奉献于人民教育事业。他追随了心灵的召唤,然而这却是国家的损失”。这话说的,太感人了。。。

从一个平民的起点通过学校的途径往上爬,虽说不是不可能,但就像是通过议会斗争实现社会主义一样,如此龟速,没有几代人是难以实现的。一个有趣的演变便是,选择Agrégation路线的名校毕业生,他们的子女往往在学业资本上有着先天的优势,于是命中注定地面临了他们父母从名校毕业的尴尬。只是这次家庭所拥有的权利资本已经有所改善:农民和小学教师的子女可以发奋在省城谋得一个小公务员或中学教师的职位,而他们的子女如果继续努力可以进入大学执教或比较赚钱的公务员职位。下一步除了继续巩固文化上的优势(据说巴黎高师已经完全沦陷为稳扎稳打的平民子弟的堡垒了),就是向更高层甚至私人企业进发。如果保持严谨的家教和适当的联姻,这一家族最终会扩张成一个以学阀为基础的所谓“耕读世家”。但是在经济场域中,这个家族地位依旧不是很高,虽然他们可能会垄断对学业资本的解释权,但是权利/经济的巨头们可以轻易废掉他们的武功,比如国家行政学院的兴起直接摧毁了巴黎高师的地位。不过,这样的家族所提供的文化资本总会有买家的,尤其在中国随着第一代白手起家创业者的淡出,有可能会付出一些赎买费来封住怨气重重的知识分子的嘴(然后大学便成了一所收容所,专门安置出身平民又不愿追随高富帅脚步的DS们)。将经济资本转化为文化资本从而获得合法性似乎是个自然的驱动,一个有意思的现象便是大家族倾向于将最小的子女“放逐”到艺术或高深学术的领域,而将经济的继承权交予长子。这并非歧视,而是当“小儿子”在家族的庇护下有所成就之后,原有的经济霸权便获得了文化霸权的支撑,毕竟,艺术品收藏/古董/基金会,哪个不是洗钱的好去处啊。

所以,世界是属于你们的,也是我们的,但最终,还是属于高富帅们的。大学里的DS们,女生就去钓金龟婿吧,男生可以努力地把自己的泥土味洗干净,找个好领主,跟高富帅们走没错!至于不想这么麻烦的,做技术的就好好在企业混,搞学术的就好好拼tenure,然后期盼着自己的子女踩在在自己的肩膀上,向着更高,更富,更帅前进吧。当然前提是,得有高富帅一不小心掉下来才可以啊。(这不,刚掉下来一个)

按:翻了下童鞋们的回复,发现自己的调侃泼冷水过了头。其实布尔迪厄本人就是是DS逆袭的范例(尤其是Agrégation路线的典型),毕业后在北非吃沙子吃了7年,一朝成名凯旋巴黎,40岁后便执掌EHESS,终成一代学霸。虽然发不了大财,搞社会调查时还得看人眼色,但能有布尔迪厄一般的人生,也不虚枉矣!

 

源地址:http://blog.renren.com/GetEntry.do?id=817964631&owner=259818119

[中国实时报 文化] 让港人又爱又恨的《盛女爱作战》

April 21, 2012 Leave a comment

特写–华尔街日报

via [中国实时报 文化] 让港人又爱又恨的《盛女爱作战》.

Agence France-Presse/Getty Images
图为2011年10月6日,21对中国新婚夫妇在北京参加一场集体婚礼。中国内地性别比例严重失衡,男女比例为108:100。

 

视男人的时候身体要前倾45度,并且绝对不要流露出兴奋之情。香港新播出的一档真人秀节目《盛女爱作战》(Bride Wannabes)认为,这是引诱未来夫君的第一步。香港人对这档节目既难以容忍又无法自拔。

节目设计很简单:五名年龄大多为30多岁的女性接受导师对自己在爱情和人生方面进行指导,为期六个月,希望藉此提升其婚姻前景。在这个过程中,有纪录片制作团队一路跟拍,而她们要前往整容诊所、学习化妆小窍门、了解多长的短信能令男人心痒难耐,并培养适时闭嘴的能力。

其中一位女士被告知:你不说话的时候,看上去像中环(Central),但一旦开口讲话就像是旺角(Mongkok)。中环是香港高级商务区,而旺角则是个人口稠密、杂乱无章的居民区。

这个电视节目大力支持某些有关淑女的无聊想法的言论令一些学术专家十分不满。有人一周前在Facebook上注册了一个名为“向盛女爱作战说不”的账户,目前已得到2,300多人的“赞好”。尽管如此,仍有很多香港市民一动不动地守在电视机前。这档节目每晚可吸引到170万观众的追捧,这意味着约四分之一的香港人口是看不够Gobby、Mandy、Suki、Florence和Bonnie这五人的搞怪行为的。

该节目之所以能引起港人共鸣是有原因的。香港的人口结构意味着很多女性可能会面临着一辈子孤芳自赏的困境。2010年的联合国统计报告显示,香港女性和男性的比例为10比9。香港的单身未婚女性人数不断增多。1996年至2009年间,这些女性在人数上增加了近50%。

香港中文大学(Chinese University of Hong Kong)主要研究婚姻趋势的蔡玉萍说,香港的男性和女性都有一种很强的危机感。她说,随着女性地位的提升,男女都在努力适应新的社会准则;女性在教育和工作等领域的地位都有所改善,但很多对传统女性担当的家庭和工作角色的认识仍停留在原地。蔡玉萍说,如果她们选择不走常规路,就会面临很大压力。

节目名称《盛女爱作战》中的“盛女”与“剩女”谐音,后者意指那些受过良好教育、经济独立、年满28岁却仍未婚嫁的女士。蔡玉萍说,虽然“剩女”一词可能源于香港,但在内地已广为流传。在内地,有着大学学历、经济独立的单身女性日益增多。以上海为例,该市20岁至50岁的未婚女性在人数上出现了《环球时报》(Global Times)所说的“不利的增长”,时至今日,这些女性的人数已经超过了50万。据联合国统计资料显示,内地性别比例严重失衡,男性“供大于求”,男女比例为108:100,这一点与香港不同。

这档总共十集的节目将于周五晚上迎来大结局,而节目的制片方香港无线电视台(TVB)已提出了拍续集(以男性为主角)的想法,这让批评人士大为反感。

一名网友在Facebook的“向盛女爱作战说不”页面上留言说,看了这个节目后,自恋的物质女会更加自恋,更加物质,而没有这些想法的女孩也会被洗脑,变成那样的人。

或许对这档节目的最佳控诉来自节目的亲历者Mandy,她是五位有望觅得佳婿的女孩子之一。她已经从节目中退出,声称还是自己找男朋友感觉更好些。

Te-Ping Chen

(更新完成)

(本文版权归道琼斯公司所有,未经许可不得翻译或转载。)

“高帅富”的真实生活

April 21, 2012 Leave a comment

天朝娱乐 | 每天开心一下!

via “高帅富”的真实生活.

 

在中国,富二代群体一直是神秘但又张狂的。想了解中国富二代的生活、学习、工作、婚恋乃至财产继承等众多细节吗?EG365为您图解“高帅富”的真实生活!献给那些想与富二代创造富三代的男女屌丝们!

Categories: China Observation, Society Tags: ,

中國女性實際社會地位與各種差異(Zt)

April 19, 2012 Leave a comment

有态度、无所畏

via 中國女性實際社會地位與各種差異(Zt).

 

网文:中外婚姻法差异和中国女性实际地位
作者:没胡子的猫
 2012/3/18 12:08:39 发布
说明:写此文,是希望更多的女性能够看到中国所谓的男女平等,真相究竟是怎么一回事。
——————————————————————————————————————————
先来看看发达国家和中国的婚姻法的差别
发达国家:
财产分配方面:
欧美:一部分是平分家产,一部分是根据具体情况裁定,大多在财产方面偏向女方以及有赡养费规定,男性出轨亦会付出很大代价。
日本:丈夫的工资大部分由公司直接汇给全职太太,丈夫只能花零花钱,如果离婚,财产平分,如果男性出轨或是家暴等,财产绝大部分甚至全部归女方。男方必须每月支付对妻子的赡养费和孩子的抚养费,老公的工资和退休金也要分前妻一半;
德国:德国法律规定,老公工资按比例打入全职太太帐户,老公要为全职太太做家务付工资,离婚后,年收入高的一方必须把和收入低一方净收入之差的3/7作为赡养费支付给对方,直到对方再婚。老公的工资和退休金都要分前妻一半。
孩子判给谁:通常只要母亲没有精神方面的疾病,不管母亲经济状况如何,基本都会判给母亲。
房产居住权:通常由有孩子抚养权的人获得房屋居住权(在英国,女方在离婚时至少可获得50%的房产权;日本可无条件获得70%的房产权;在法国、德国、荷兰、比利时等欧洲国家,离婚诉讼中,判给妻子的房产权几乎高达100%)
为什么发达国家财产分配偏向女性?:他们认可女性对家庭的生育付出,也不会看不起全职太太(事实上发达国家已婚女性当全职太太的比例并不低,如果夫妻双方都在工作,他们的家务通常是平分或请保姆,甚至很多男性主动承担更多的家务),尊重其奉献,全职太太的地位并不比在外赚钱的人的地位低,而且母亲对子女的教育有着深远的影响,一个离异后就毫无经济能力的母亲,怎么能够给予子女正常的教育和营养。
中国:只承认社会工作是劳动,没有赡养费,只有对孩子的抚养费,通常也就几百块钱,在中国,几百块钱能为孩子做什么?而且钱会不会拿给你还是个问题。 而那所谓的按揭补偿,首先你要保存几十年的缴费单,还得是你亲自去缴费的,如果没有证据,你无法证明你按揭过,就算你有这个好不容易保存了的证据,按中国的法律执行力来看,你有很大可能这一辈子都拿不到了,婚后所谓的共同财产,现在转移起来也不是一般的方便了。男人出轨,法律规定的精神损失费几千而已。至于那所谓的生育自由权,其实只是表面文章,男性可以以你不生育导致感情破裂为由提出离婚。
孩子判给谁:在中国,孩子一般都是谁有钱判给谁,当你被净身出户后,除非男方不愿意要,否则你很有可能连孩子都会一起失去!
为什么中国的婚姻法偏向强势一方?
        在中国,女性在跟男性一样工作的同时,还要承受绝大多数甚至全部的家务,而女性对家庭的付出都被认为是理所当然的,不能也不该索要报酬。同时女性在生育方面付出的巨大精力,失去的工作、晋升机会,因生育对身体造成的损失,和家务一样都得不到社会基本的尊重和认可,也因为这些因素,加上社会的歧视和用人单位承担的女性生育成本,基本决定了女性不会有太多机会在收入上超过男性,也就是说,绝大多数女性都是弱势群体。由于婚姻产生的损失,全部由女方一个人担是不公平的,就算是保姆,每个月也有好几千块工资还包吃的吧?在这里,也没有几个人敢当全职太太,因为会被丈夫瞧不起,说你没本事,你也没资格用他的钱,因为这钱不是你直接挣的。而当你将重心完全倾向事业的时候,他立马又会抱怨你太好强,不照顾家庭和孩子,不够温柔。在这里,我们一方面像男人一样工作养家,一方面还要为家庭当牛做马,成了男人和女人的结合体。
         只有在这样一个可笑的地方,才会出现男性把妻子扫地出门不予任何补偿的怪事,而且这种怪事还得到了大量男性以及少量女性的支持。或许有些经济状况良好的女性会觉得,这样对你们也有益,但你们有没有想过那些已经被传统婚姻榨干的妇女,和那些被男权思想的父母以及贫穷剥夺了教育权、事业权和思想权的女性,她们不得不在婚姻中当一个贤妻良母,可中国又不认可这种付出,她们的处境会有多被动?而且你们经济条件好,你们买了房,就能让丈夫自己安个子宫帮你们生孩子了吗?就能让丈夫带孩子了吗?就能让丈夫替你承担生育养育损失了吗?就能让孩子跟你们姓了吗?就能让孩子叫你父母为爷爷奶奶了吗?就能让自己的父母成为丈夫的义务了吗?就能让丈夫家暴就去坐牢吗?就能让丈夫承担家务吗?就能避免丈夫可能转移财产的情况吗?实际上对于有房的女性来说,在中国的现状和风俗中这种婚姻法也只是让男方多占了一层经济上的便宜而已,称不上有利,并不能改变你为了丈夫家养育子女付出巨大精力和牺牲却丝毫得不到补偿甚至一点感谢的事实。
         婚姻法本质应该是以保护妇女儿童以及弱势群体的利益为优先,但在这里变成了保护男性和强势群体的法律。
为什么婚姻法一次又一次的变?
         中国的婚姻法,其实大致在2001年的时候就开始对女性等弱势群体缺少补偿了,即取消了结婚8年后个人婚前购房转为共同财产的规定,而2011年新婚法后,直接把共同按揭买的房也归为个人专属财产后,才引起轩然大波。不过即使在过去就有很多女性离婚会面临净身出户的危险,绝大部分的离婚依然是由女性主动提出的,而事实上,离婚的女性几乎都认为自己离婚后生活比以前幸福了,其实从这点,我们就可以看出在这里结婚到底对谁更有利了。
         婚姻法一步步改变,改的对男人越来越有利,男人出轨越来越无压力,越来越不用承担什么责任,却只字不提女性在婚姻里和生育里的隐形牺牲和付出,只字不提中国家暴的问题,只字不提女性肩负的多重压力和被强加的对男方父母的义务是多么的不公平,中国一方面越来越喜欢给男人太多特权,另一方面却并不要求男人承担相应的责任;一方面给了女性太多责任,却丝毫不给一点应有的权利。
一个婚前财产公证的例子看中国的双重标准
          有一位女性,自己买的房,做了婚前公证,不久后就离婚了,专家们的评论是:这女人不是个好女人,不信任丈夫和公婆。但反过来,男的要求公证,女的不干,就是无良的“拜金女”了,新婚法出台之后,主流舆论们都说,什么公婆买房儿媳没份儿,反正男的防着女的天经地义,女的防着男的天理不容。这就是中国可爱的双重标准,要求女性当无偿付出无限多义务劳动的“圣母”,否则你就是“拜金”,就算被净身出户了,也不能抱怨,否则很多男性会说你“没出息”,“没本事”,是的,如果换成他们生育和以家庭为重心,他们的确还会很有出息。
女性对买性和家暴的容忍真的可以挽回婚姻吗?
         很多女性觉得,对家暴或者出轨的男人宽容、原谅,他们就会变好,实际上这只是在助长这部分男性的嚣张气焰而已。《中国性科学》曾报道,男人以暴力行为发泄情绪之后,雄激素水平不但不会因疏导下降,反而会因暴力行为的成功而上升,从而变得更加暴力。同理,男人的性自由不但不能疏导他们买性的欲望,反而会让他们买性的欲望增强;也就是说,男人一旦突破了婚内性的束缚,对性方面的要求就会变得更加来源不限,多多益善。
         一个人的地位不是由金钱恒定的,女性携带的生儿育女的天职,本就会造成你们在事业上和身体上的损失,事业上或许没能做到和男性一样成功,并不是你们低他们一等的理由,更何况这是个男权社会,连男人都不是每个都能做到非常成功,更何况女人呢?男女各自有各自的奉献,人人本是生而平等的。
         如果女性自身都不认可自己的价值,只会重复一代又一代重男轻女的行为:对这些用女孩的命换来的男孩过分宠爱,众星捧月,导致他们不懂得男性的责任和做人应有的道德,不会懂得分担应有的家务和家庭责任,只会压榨和轻贱女性;对女孩过分“精神压迫”,导致她们不能认可自己的价值,经济独立但不能精神独立,逆来顺受,成为一个只会付出而不懂得维护自身权益的“圣母”,从而恶性循环。
         很多女性的家长就是这样,他们总是对自己女儿特别苛刻,却对女婿十分宽容,即使女婿出轨家暴,他们也会劝女儿说什么男人犯错很正常,无所谓。他们根本不明白,自己的女儿也是一个人,一个平等的人。就算有极少数的开明的家长,他们也会顾及到在天朝这样一个不保护女性的国度,女性追求婚姻生活中的公平或许会遭到女婿及公婆的暴力对待。
女性生孩子不会减少妇科病和延缓更年期
         中国的女性,结婚之后生孩子是必须的,是你的“义务”,即使生育的损失完全是你一个人在承担,即使在这里女性的生育特别的廉价,丝毫得不到很多发达国家对待生育过的妇女的尊重,即使你有可能生了孩子丢了工作然后再被扫地出门。
         国内很多砖家都声称生孩子和幸福的婚姻会给母亲增寿,减少妇科疾病,延缓更年期,其实国外研究早就证明,不生育不会缩短女性寿命,终生不生育的女性乳腺癌几率与25-29岁初育者一致 ,且得乳腺癌的可能性小于35岁以后生育的女性。女性更年期年龄亦是由遗传决定,与是否结婚以及婚姻是否幸福没有任何关系,事实上男性也有更年期,且他们的更年期年龄才和是否结婚,婚姻生活是否完美密切相关,我也曾咨询过身边生过孩子的女性,她们大多都说自己生了孩子后身体大不如前了,记忆力也变差了。
         女性首先是个人,其次才是个女人,最后才是位母亲,不是每个女人都想生孩子的,更不是每个女人在中国这样神奇的环境都敢生孩子的。
发达国家和中国对待家庭暴力的处理方式
         发达国家:丈夫对妻子用家庭暴力,即使只是一个耳光,也会被扣押、耗费N多保释费、社区服务、强制心理治疗、儿童保护机构不定期家访,且日后一旦离婚,施暴的男性在财产分配上将完全处于被动和劣势地位。就算仅是吵架,女方报警,男方也会被强制上“爱护家庭课”三个月,且有很多家暴保护机构,至于严重的家暴,请自行想象。
         中国:中国家暴率很高(曾有国外的纪录片表明中国是世界上家暴率最严重的国家之一,曾有国内统计发现有近三分之一的家暴率,不要觉得不可思议,很多被打的女性为了面子在外面表现得非常正常)。女性却没有任何有效的处理方式,这里只有一个没有任何实际行使权力的做表面文章的妇联,求助法律也不会有任何结果。更好笑的是丈夫虐待妻子,哪怕是将妻子打死,也就是一个虐待罪,判刑最多七年(参见北京董珊珊案例,这还只是上了新闻的,现实中,对妻子长期施暴打残打傻甚至打死却根本没受到任何惩罚的事件并不少,还有不少女性因为被施暴而自杀的),与此相反的是,如果是妻子不堪虐待打死了丈夫,面临她的将是终身监禁或死缓,曾经还有一位女性,常常被家暴,怀孕后生了一女,丈夫嫌弃想要掐死,她为了保护女儿杀死了丈夫,被判终身监禁。在这里,打路人是犯法的,打妻子却只是“家事”,不犯法。还曾有案例,丈夫打妻子,妻子还了手,于是就不是家暴了。当年的董珊珊案,并没有引起太大轰动,还有男性称:“谁叫她嫁给有钱人了呢”,男人永远不会被家暴,所以他们不关心,不同情。而家暴对孩子的影响,在这里也不被重视,受折磨的不仅是女人,也是孩子,是社会的未来。
发达国家和中国对待娼妓业的态度
         在绝大多数发达国家,娼妓业并不合法,而他们在打击嫖妓行业方面,主要是打击嫖客,对嫖客进行重罚,甚至有极个别会曝光他们并判刑,对妓女却只轻罚或者不罚,而且在大部分国家,比如美国,舆论对嫖客非常不客气,嫖客被描述为挫男等,如果一个男人嫖妓被戳穿,连他的好哥们都会看不起他,而即使是那些娼妓业合法的国家,花钱买性也绝对不是件光彩的事,而是被说成只有又脏又臭毫无本事的男人才会去花钱买性,倒是有不少中国男人喜欢在华人论坛上说自己睡了多少白条鸡,还引以为豪。
        中国:这里是表面的嫖妓不合法,对待妓女就像对待牲畜,毫无一点人性可言。而且在这里,如果一个男人嫖妓,他的好哥们都会支持他,舆论也从来不会谴责花钱买性的行为,而女人如果因为丈夫买性而离婚或是抱怨,还很有可能会被认为是不懂事,不给男人面子,感情在这里男人有需要是很正常的,只要没把妓女娶进门,你就该高呼万岁了,实际上这种男人只爱自己,妓女和妻子都只是工具而已,对待妻子还不如对待妓女大方,妓女实际上也并不能减少强奸罪的发生率。
发达国家和中国对待女性被强奸事件的态度
         在西方,父母们都让自己的女儿在遇到可能出现的性侵犯事件的时候,不要过分反抗,以保护自己为主题,递上安全套比递上刀子明智。强奸罪亦是重罪,通常会判几十年。
         中国呢?这里认为女性所谓的贞操以及用这种所谓的贞操来恒定的所谓的尊严比仅有一次的生命重要,宁死也要不屈,以前有人提议让女孩出门带上避孕套,遇到强奸事件时可以避免艾滋病等疾病而造成进一步的伤害,结果被人骂得狗血淋头。而且被强奸后女性还得遭受周围邻居,长辈,同事等的“议论”,本是受害者,还要被唾沫星子淹死,而因此造成的几乎永久性的心理创伤,却不会引起关注,强奸罪也不过是判区区几年而已,奸杀案也永远都是死缓。想起那个16岁因为强奸其的罪犯判刑太轻而自杀的孩子,不由得感叹:姑娘,你投胎投错地方了。
处/非处的问题
        在中国,一个女人,不管你品德多么优良,本身多么优秀,只要你婚前不是处女,就是骂声一片了,而这里在要求处女的同时,却丝毫不要求处男,甚至对非处男大加赞赏和崇拜,女性也是人,却没有对自己身体的处置权,男性却连嫖妓(实际上美国曾经做过调查发现嫖过妓的男人更容易犯罪,也更容易对女性做出极端的暴力虐待行为)都能得到一堆男人的支持和辩解。同是人,却被给予了不同的道德标准和行为准则。或者说,其实有些男性,根本就没有把女性当人,只把她们当一件可以用处还是非处来评估其价值并可以任其发泄的物品,所以很多男性说:你们要求我们结婚有房有车,我们要求你们是处女理所当然。姑且不论究竟能有多少女性会这样要求(至少我身边一个这样的女性都没有),实际上有房只是对你下一代以及你自己生活的保障而已(不娶妻,你就一辈子不买房子睡大街了?),也是男性为了自己在同性之间有面子而已,更别提现在多少夫妻都是男女一起供房的了。还有很多人声称什么男女身理结构不一样,所以男人可以胡来,女人却坚决不可以,这就更可笑了,如果做好安全措施,对谁都是无害的,什么非处影响胎儿智商以及非处的孩子会像第一个男人也毫无科学依据,那些文章经查实不过是用一些文章东拼西凑来的,唯一能查到的一位该文所引用的存在的科学家只发表过一篇血液对免疫力的影响的文章,却还能得到一大堆人的追捧,我并不反对男女婚前禁欲,但是用这些伪科学和双重标准来束缚女性并对女性进行洗脑,纯粹只是为了满足那些男人的自私欲望,一群自己都不是处男的男人在那里叫嚣情人可以找非处,结婚必须娶处女,实在是让人觉得恶心。那些声称女性婚前守贞才会获得幸福,并且能够得到的幸福比非处多很多的男人,其实不过是在胡言乱语给女人洗脑罢了,一个有处女情结的男人不能嫁,除非他自己也是处男,否则只意味着他是一个奉行性和道德的双重标准的男人,这种男人非常的自私,骨子里轻贱女性,绝对不懂得什么叫做责任和良心,还更有可能出轨,女人嫁给了这种人,只会变成一个真正的黄脸婆。还有砖家称美国发起过贞操运动,其实只是某个宗教组织到少数几所大学搞了几个小范围的宣传活动,根本谈不上“运动”,并且他们是宣传男女守贞的,更何况,处女膜在大概成年后,就会逐渐淡化并失去它原有的保护作用,用一层膜来评估女人的道德和“价值”,跟过去的裹脚布一样,实在是男权社会最为讽刺的笑话。(难怪不得,现实中有些女性被强奸后自杀或是为了避免强奸而做出不顾自己生命的行为,天朝如此强调一层膜的重要,她们的确是“没脸”活下去了罢)
媒体物化歧视女性的问题
         这里的媒体最擅长的就是抨击“剩女”,女性刚出校门甚至还没出校门,就要开始担心被“剩下”,还在各种舆论中灌输所谓的“优良”封建思想,例如女性就应该早婚早育,女性必须得结婚,女性不该在乎男性年龄,女性不该介意对方是否二婚三婚,女性不该介意丈夫的出轨甚至嫖妓,女性应该做个承包家务,经济独立,伺候公婆的“免费女仆+媳妇+女儿”,女性应该婚前守贞,还总是拼命的用“贬值”,“处女/非处女”等词来物化贬低女性,更恶心的是,媒体常常花钱请女人来表演拜金女形象,妖魔化女性,比如马诺,还有什么杜撰的小月月,借此让男性可以把气都撒在女人身上,却从来不会针对一下现实中存在的不算少的不负责任道德败坏自私毫无担当的男人,且对要求加名不成导致离婚的女性都故意丑化,丝毫不提男方有无过错,也丝毫不说很多品行优良的女性仅仅是希望自己对家庭的付出能够得到补偿和尊重,要求加名却导致离婚,还得到一片骂名是多么的不公平,还有许多刻意的明显用男性视觉来挖苦女性所谓的“现实”的文章,且大肆宣传只有女性年龄对生育有影响,女性生育有多少多少好处,女性才有更年期,男性没有,女性离婚后会贬值,年龄大了也会贬值,男性却四十都还是一块宝,连主流媒体和法律都可以堂而皇之的欺压女性,灌输一些错误的伪科学和封建思想,就算一个男人没有欺负女性的想法,在这种环境下真的能一点都不改变吗?
性和道德的双重标准
          很多人认为女人应该包裹得像什么伊斯兰世界的木乃伊才是正确的,其实男权思想越严重的地方,娼妓业越是发达,男性也越是放纵,民众私生活越是淫乱,包括古中国和当今的中国,纵观中国历史,充满了丑陋和淫秽,男性无比的放纵,吃喝嫖赌虐待妻子小妾无恶不作毫无人性可言,这就是保守么?这就是道德么?人性本来就不该过分压抑,而应该适当正确的疏导,倡导正确的性教育,减少女性堕胎率才是应该做的事。事实上我们从小到大接受的教育就是:女人性爱是吃亏的,舆论也对女性非常的不公平,只要保护好自己,性本来就是对双方都有益的事情,从古代的一夫多妻,到现在一夫一妻了,依然是男性怎么胡来都无所谓,女人就算是早恋或是异性朋友比较多都会留下不好的名声,自尊自爱从来都是教育女性的必有教条,却从来没有教男性自尊自爱的。甚至是很多新闻上有一些女性仅仅是跟男友分手就被杀害,还被很多网友所谩骂,而男性因为自己私事杀害妻子之类的新闻,下面的评论少有如此苛刻的骂男方的,更别提为了达到禁锢女性的目的,甚至还编造上面说的伪科学了,这里的有些人就这么害怕女人脱离这种双重标准和不对等的禁锢么?
发达国家和中国对于单身女性生孩子的处理方式
         欧美日本等发达国家:有强大的生育和抚养补贴,以及免祱和社会保障救济体系,从怀孕就开始发营养费,小孩子生出来每个月有奶粉费,职业女性小孩子送公立幼儿园是不收费的,小中学甚至大学全免费。
        中国:在这里,如果女性想单身生育,一方面会受到周围环境的压力和指责,一方面会被计划生育部门认定是违法,强制堕胎,甚至收养弃婴都违法,要征收高额“社会抚养费”。不能单身生育,国家无任何补贴,反倒是不管是在工作上还是什么都处处为难,于是我们只能通过婚姻生育,而婚姻又造成了女性在职业发展和收入上的必然损失,所有为家庭付出的巨大职业牺牲和巨量劳动都是女性单方面承担的。
中国对待女性外嫁之风的态度
         但凡一谈起中国女性的外嫁风,总会招来一大堆男性的漫骂,用各种污言秽语形容那些外嫁的女性。这让我想到了越南、俄罗斯,他们的外嫁率很高,不过她们外嫁并不是因为媒体上炒作的男少女多,实际上他们年轻人中男女性别比很正常,越南则是男多女少(参考美国2010年发布的世界各国不同年龄层性别比),她们之所以喜欢外嫁,是因为他们本国的男性喜欢抽烟酗酒打女人,女性地位低下。更何况女性也是人,是独立的个体,不是男性的所有物,她们有自由追求自己爱情、追求一个会尊重自己保护自己的环境的权利。
为什么会有“彩礼”的存在?
         这里之所以有让很多男性感到不满的彩礼(少数地区才有),本质原因是因为这里的女性离婚后得不到任何保障,在婚姻中的损失也得不到任何尊重和补偿,于是只能通过彩礼等形式来做“象征性”的补偿;实际上,如果中国可以像发达国家一样,做到婚后共同财产真的是共同财产,丈夫家暴会坐牢,打死妻子不再只判6年,妻子反抗丈夫施暴不会被判重刑,而是正当防卫,男人出轨会受到严厉的惩罚,离婚后女性会有高额的赡养费和抚养费,法律会强制实施,女人可以选择当全职太太或是只奔事业,而不是二者全担,并且当全职太太也能得到尊重和认可,伺候公婆不再是女人的义务,而是男方自己的义务,女人是嫁给你一个人,而不是嫁给你一家人,孩子叫双方父母爷爷奶奶,而不是加个“外”,那么这里绝对不会再有什么彩礼了!更何况,那么几万的彩礼,真的可以将一个别人辛辛苦苦养了几十年的女儿“成你家的人”吗?
拜金女问题
         这里说的拜金女是真的拜金女,不是什么上面被男权污蔑的“拜金女”,而真正的拜金女是非常少的(这种女人我几乎只能在天朝擅长作秀的媒体上看见)。那些嘲笑鄙视拜金女的男性,有一点你们需要明白,这个社会是男权社会,社会上的诸多规则是男性制定的,社会风气价值观是男性在导向的,你们该问责的是主导社会的男性,该问责的是中国毫不保护女性等弱势群体的法律,该问责的是成功后就抛弃陪伴他多年的糟糠在外吃喝嫖赌的男人们,该问责的是一听说新婚法就幸灾乐祸因为自己弱势就去欺压比自己更弱势的女性的男人,而不是去责备在这个男权社会地位仅仅处于从属、生活比你们更不容易的女人。绝大多数女性作为弱势群体,很难做到不为了生活随着社会大流走,她们有什么力量去反抗这个由男性主导价值观和风气的社会潜规则呢?再说女孩变现实,男人就一点责任都没有?更何况中国的拜金男就少吗?如果一样的条件,男人谁会不选富婆?拜金本无罪,该受到谴责的只是那些为了有钱人抛弃男友/女友的人,何必装清高搞双重标准呢?
中外部分性别文化差异
         在澳洲等国家,同居超过两年,双方财产自动算做共同财产,如若分手要实行财产分割。在这里,有女性和男方同居很多年,结果男方考上公务员后就将其抛弃,于是该女性什么补偿都没有得到。
         在美国,已婚男人也不能向别人抱怨自己的妻子不好,除非他抱怨后立即离婚,否则名誉会受损,在这里,常常可以听见丈夫对妻子的抱怨,埋怨妻子这样不好那样不好,也没有人觉得他这样做是对妻子的不尊重。
         在美国,人们只会嘲笑长大了还非常听母亲话的男人,不会嘲笑怕老婆的男人,这里,情况正好相反,有各种词挖苦“怕”老婆的男人。
         在国外,孩子对父母双方的亲戚称呼没有差异,儿媳妇也没有对丈夫父母的赡养义务,在这里。。。。。。
         在美国,男性对女方的年龄要求是正负5岁以内,日本,男性喜欢同岁的女性,在这里,男人喜欢20-24岁的,不管自己年龄多大多老。
         在美国,每一个女厕所都很讲究,外面有一个厅,厅里有一些座椅,是为女性的例假、身体不方便特意安排的,在这里,不过是一些大学生们发起占领男厕所的艺术行为来呼吁扩大一下女厕所的面积和比例,就引起了广大男网民的谩骂。
         在国外,男方出轨,没有人会劝女方忍、包容,反倒是女方不离婚会被认为是软弱。在这里,情感专家甚至自己的父母都告诉女人,丈夫出轨,你一定要忍,一定要检讨自己是不是不够美丽了,不够大方了,不够包容了,如果离婚,还会有人说你不懂事,男人嘛,出轨算什么呢?反过来,女方出轨就是天理不容,下贱不要脸了、该死了。
         在美国,文化鼓励女性多学习,也鼓励女性就业,但对全职太太依然是非常尊重的,不会要求女方既工作又承包家务,全职太太离婚后也不会没有保障。在这里,舆论一边让女性就业,一边让女性承包家务,否则就是不合格的妻子,且认为全职太太是“没用”、“吃白饭”的。
         在国外,没有人会觉得只有女方的年龄对孩子才有影响,且国外早就发现:大龄男性生的孩子没有年轻父亲生的孩子聪明,患先天性缺陷等疾病的几率也高于正常,而较大龄的母亲生育的子女反而更聪明更健康,30岁之后,男性生精能力开始走下坡路,精子质量和生育能力都会随之下降,中国对于精子活动力的标准比国外低很多,也就是说夫妻不育,有的情况在国外是算作男方的问题,在中国不算为男方问题.。
中国女性生存的现状
         中国的法律极其欠缺健全,女性得不到有效的保障,权利和义务也严重不对等。中国已婚女性自杀率远远高于未婚女性,犯罪率和患精神疾病率也高于未婚女性,中国女性自杀率亦高于男性。在当今中国的部分地区,依然还存在着结婚前不领结婚证,先生个儿子再领证的习俗,还有部分地区过年初一女人不能上桌吃饭,而且不能回娘家,否则会被赶出去,生一胎是女儿的话,必须生二胎,如果二胎也是女儿,就必须送一个出去,继续生。而在某些边远地区,女性的地位更为低下,她们每天上班,挣的钱甚至比男人还多,回家后却还要做全部的家务,还经常被家暴,还有很多男人常去嫖妓,她们还只能懦弱可悲的接受。还有中国的计划生育,节育措施主要是上环(统计称中国有40%以上的妇女通过上环避孕,占全世界的60%,部分地区是强制拉育龄女性上环的,不上环连工作和小孩上学都要受限制),上环——让一种金属在女性体内“驻扎”几十年,对女性造成的痛苦、对女性身体的巨大伤害却从不被提及,上环后有流血不止几个月、小病连连以及脱环的,上环后怀孕的女人,最容易发生宫外孕和大出血,而且妇女绝经后还需要取环,取环是连环带肉拔出来的,更别说还有一些地方计生办强制拖怀孕8、9个月的女人去流产,甚至闹出人命的了,我很奇怪中国人对此竟然一点愤怒一点关注都没有, 在这个如此不把女人当人的国家,女人不但要为自己的性行为承担一切责任,还得被迫地给男人的性行为承担一切责任,中国的传统文化在两性关系中一向只约束女人、放纵男人,并且觉得这是应该的.,不用避孕套或是吃避孕药,最终都是女人倒霉,妇科病缠身,医院的妇科永远是最火爆的。在国外,一般都是通过男性结扎以及大力推广避孕套来避孕的。
        法律方面,曾经有案例,“丈夫不能生育劝妻子借种生子,十年后告妻公堂”,判的却是婚后所有共同财产归那个男人,只赔5000给那位女士;“妻子为贴补家用出国打工,丈夫出轨转移财产”,该案丈夫除了转移财产,还连孩子都要拿走,女方上诉也根本没有得到解决,还有妇女因为新婚法被迫带女儿离开家庭,回去取衣服时被前夫打成重伤,以及男方强迫女方签非常可笑的保证书,否则就让她净身出户的,妻子车祸重伤,丈夫拿了赔偿款就将其“扫地出门”宣布离婚不闻不问的;妻子用了财产离婚后法院判赔给丈夫,但包二奶的丈夫抢了流产的妻子的治病钱,妻子报警却因为是夫妻关系而被警察以报假警为由拘留的,此外还有诸多的不公平的、欺负女性的例子。
         教育方面,以前大兴的“淑女班”,以及郑州某中学制定的要求女生当淑女的秀慧女生的标准,还有人大代表提倡学校开设“女德”课,怎么不开设“男德”课呢?女生都去当淑女,进入社会了怎么办?难道让女性都回归家庭当全职太太?问题是这里根本不认可隐形付出,想让女人被家庭压榨干再被扫地出门睡大街去么?近年来中国大学中女生人数已逐渐超过男生人数,媒体马上开始大呼“阴盛阳衰”了,“中国教育方式不适合男生”,“男孩怎么了”等,大有一付对中国的未来忧心忡忡之势,而与此同时,美国的大学中女生也比男生多(包括理工科),但他们很多校园里,依然张贴众多成功女性的画像,激励女生学习(并且美国年轻人中男女比例相当,并不是很多人认为的西方国家女性比男性多,其实他们总人口中多出来的女性人数几乎都是老年女性)。
         与此同时,还有一些人把中国女性的生存状况同穆斯林世界相比,认为我们应该很知足了。我们是人,有追求真正平等的权利,而不是因为表面上仅仅比她们好了一点就该欢天喜地,止步不前。再说,人都该学习正确的思想和行为,而不是为自己不是倒数第一只是倒数第二而沾沾自喜,这样的行为和思想只会让社会停滞不前,甚至倒退,比如阿富汗曾经是一个妇女可以投票的国家,到了塔利班时期,女人不能出门,只要出去就要挨打,甚至没有就医的权利。上世纪的伊朗,女性可以穿着轻便的上大学,女医生也非常常见,现在只能包裹得像木乃伊才能进入,而且被隔离在校园的一个区域内,识字的女性人数也大大减少(和他们的伊斯兰宗教有关,宗教并一定都是好的,更不一定都是对人类发展有利的),所以我们可以看到,社会的倒退是确实可能发生的。
中国女权的本质
         男性的义务越来越小权益越来越大,女性义务无限增大的同时权益越来越小–这就是天朝男女平等的现状,其本质是在女性承担了一半社会责任后继续剥削压榨其家庭劳动的剩余价值(有统计表明,中国女性做家务的时间是男性的两倍以上,生育、抚养等沉重工作,都变成了女性免费的义务,‘健康与生存’方面,中国女性排名133名,世界排名倒数第三)。中国的女权解放的是男人,不是女人。女性本来就有多种角色,不管是专职于家庭还是专职于事业,都应该被尊重,可这里,不管是哪种类型的女性,都不得不像男人一样在这个充满了歧视的职场上拼搏,同时还得肩挑家庭重担,否则你就是“没用、没出息”,所谓的“男人能做的事,女人也能做”其实只是对女性的变相歧视,本质上依然是在为了男权社会的利益改造女性。有一次人大会议一位女性提起要实现家务付工资,众多男性跳出来反对,甚至还有人宣称:“如果妻子做家务我还要付工资,那我还不如请个保姆”;他们已经习惯像奴隶主一样,免费榨取女性了,而且我们也可以看出说出这种话的男性为什么要娶妻子了,因为便宜。妓女是要钱的,保姆是要钱的,代孕是要钱的,父母和自己病了护工也是要钱的。在这些人眼中,娶了个妻子后这一切花费都省了不少,正因为如此,我们常常能在网上的评论和文章中,看见有男性将妻子和妓女相提并论,下面还有一大群跟风的人,这种盛观的景象,让人对部分中国男性的道德观和价值观叹为观止。
女性地位和人类发展的关系
        女性对下一代的教育具有深远的影响,一个民族有什么样的母亲,这个国家就有什么样的未来,这就是为什么女性地位越低下的地方,人们的思想也越狭隘,自私,社会也越贫穷,混乱(参见一直混乱无比的中东、非洲,贫穷的越南、朝鲜以及本质一直不怎么和谐的天朝)。一个被男权思想洗脑的、从心里不把自己当做一个人,不懂得争取平等的权利、逆来顺受的女人,很难教出一个真正有思想有品德的人,而事实上,国外也曾经证明过:母亲越幸福,孩子长大越是能说会道,会处人际关系,情感健全。这个规律对于儿子来说尤为明显。所以说,越是压迫剥削女性,越是在作茧自缚。一个不懂得尊重女性的国家,是没有希望的,一个歧视女性的民族更是野蛮的民族。
回到婚姻方面
         在这里,婚后包养小三乃至小N反而是男人成功的标志,炫耀的资本,还有各种各样的布满大街小巷的娱乐城夜总会和街边发廊。
         国外有统计表明,中国城市男性的婚外性发生率是美国城市男性婚外性发生率的5倍,且有近一半的比例是花钱买性。
         有很多男性将中国的高房价责任推向丈母娘,媒体也乐意这样炒作和推动舆论,借此洗掉政府的责任。为何无论什么事,都要把责任推向女人?我们只是天朝的二三等公民,没有那么大的本事可以推动这么庞大的产业。在这里,男人出轨了,是女人的错,男人对你家暴了,是女人的错,男人成功了抛弃你,是女人的错,女人婚后过得不幸福,还是女人的错,女人不愿意结婚,更是天理不容。总之,因为你是女人,所以不管是家事琐事乃至国家大事,都是你的错,所谓:参政无权利,亡国有责任。
         现在社会的诸多矛盾,也导致了普通人生活越来越艰难,但是政府压迫剥削你们,你们就该压迫剥削比你们更加弱势的女性吗?ZF的过错,就应该让女人买单了吗?你们以为政府让你们有权利剥削比你们更加弱势的女性后,中国的社会矛盾就不存在了吗?房价就不高了吗?物价就不飞涨了吗?工资就不低了吗?实际上,这种将女性踩在社会底层的策略可以极大地转嫁社会的各种问题和人民的不满,叫好的那些男性也只是在心底里接受并认可了这样压迫女性的做法,帮凶而已。
         没有人想想婚姻法会对我们后代造成什么样的影响,以后夫妻之间你防着我我防着你,大家都拼命的奔事业,父母间恶化的关系对孩子会造成什么影响?父母对孩子的忽视又会对孩子造成什么影响?接着以后大家都会习惯谁弱谁死的伟大习俗了,而习惯于这种伟大习俗纷纷忙着婚前公证忙着算计提防着对方的我们的后代,究竟能创造出多文明多有道德的社会呢?
最后
        中国的女人们,你们什么时候才能清醒呢?一个男权社会是不会认可和承认你的付出和价值的,更不会来保护你的权益的,只会剥削你的剩余价值,只会在矛盾多多的时候将你们踩在社会底层来弱化和转移社会矛盾而已(例如阿富汗就在2009年为了安抚国内人民将童婚和婚内强奸归为合法)。你们什么时候才能明白,你们也是一个平等的独立的人,你们对家庭的付出不该是理所当然的,你们也该得到同样的权利,你们也该得到同样的保护,你们也该得到社会的尊重,而不是任由媒体用“女人四十豆腐渣,男人四十一枝花”,“离婚的男人是块宝,离婚的女人就是根草”“女人才有更年期,男人没有”,“女人比男人老得快”等极具侮辱性的语句来抹黑你们抬高男性,老男人娶年轻女人正常,稍大的女人嫁给比自己小的男人就会被谩骂!不结婚是你们的自由,而不是什么“剩女”!
         我希望以后我的孩子不用再当中国人,因为少有像这里这么压制女人,却极力降低男性出轨成本,男性享有高高在上的性别特权的国家,我更不希望他在这样一个道德沦丧的环境中长大,成为一个离婚的时候对相对弱势的一方幸灾乐祸的说可以让你净身出户了的人,一个能够让为他生儿育女的发妻净身出户的孩子,我自己都怕。
         女人的权益不是靠男人的良知和责任感来约束的,而是靠公平公正的法律来保障的。
后谈
         对那些新婚法后被净身出户,可能连孩子都没有拿到,把事业机会留给丈夫的善良贤惠的传统好女人们、那些正在迈向并有可能重复这一道路的女性、那些生活在底层的,连基本的反抗能力都没有的女性表示深深的同情。
        有些男性认为,女性应该承担起家庭的经济的同时,承包起所有的家务和子女养育,而且这种付出还该是无偿的,这不叫妻子,叫奴隶,这也不是丈夫和妻子的关系,是奴隶主和奴隶的关系。
         那些说女方要求加名就是“不劳而获”的男人,你们是想免费侵占女性的生育资源和养育子女以及赡养你父母的劳力吧?而且还免费索要冠姓权?你们这才是不劳而获吧?如果你们不想别人“占便宜”,你们可以不结婚,花钱找代孕,然后自己带孩子。
         中国走的是与国际相反的道路,中国保护的是强势群体和男性。那些天天闹着房车都是男人买的人,我很奇怪,中国真有那么多男人可以不靠女方帮着按揭独立买房买车?
         每当看见天朝有关于谴责丢弃女婴的新闻,以及说什么男女比例失调的时候,我总觉得特别的讽刺,一个只知道谴责现象却从不深究其原因、更从不会做点实际的事,反倒是逆流而动愈发压迫女性的国家,是多么的可笑可悲!
         中国有那么一些人,常常在网上编造一个恶心的女友来抹黑女性以及编造各种各样的伪科学,以此来达到对女人洗脑的目的,让她们觉得自己是一种低劣的存在,让她们觉得自己要当一个无欲无求、没有思想的奴隶才是“好女人”,一有极少的清醒的女性,也会被他们扣上各种帽子,被他们围攻,因为他们害怕女人觉醒。女人觉醒了,他们就没有免费的奴隶使唤和发气了,也没法实施不公平的双重标准了。
         很多女性受天朝装门面的数据影响,以为自己的地位真的高了,以为地位高的判断标准是就业率,实际上看看国外,就算只看看亚洲,亚洲比较发达的国家女权情况也好我们很多,包括很多人误以为女性地位低下的日本,实际上日本女性的地位比中国女性高了不知多少。女性地位高的国家,全职太太一样受尊重,而在中国,就算你是个女强人,也不意味着你就受尊重了。
         有些男性希望妻子温柔体贴淑女,会主家事,会养育子女,会伺候好自己和父母以及处理好亲戚之间的关系,同时还要经济独立,问题是,当女人花了大部分精力在家庭,她还能有多少工作潜力?当你们说选择专注于事业而不是事业家庭兼顾的女性自私的时候,当你们骂剩女的时候,你们有没有想过你们自己?你们愿意给妻子加名吗?你们愿意尊重妻子对家庭和子女的付出吗?你们愿意在妻子进产房的时候陪在她身边吗?你们愿意真心理解妻子生产时经历的医学上的最大痛以及这是在搏命吗?你们愿意真心不嫌弃妻子产后的妊娠纹等变丑的模样吗?你们愿意在双方都有工作的情况下分担一半的家务和子女教育吗?你们自己在同样有工作的情况下兼顾过家庭吗?你们愿意不说道妻子的收入没你高吗?你们愿意在妇女中年被净身出户后不嘲笑她没本事没出息而是给予一个正常人应该有的同情吗?你们会因为政府剥削到了女性头上而帮着她们反抗不公而不是落井下石鼓掌欢呼吗?你们愿意在双方出一样的钱买房,甚至是女方单方面买房的情况下让孩子跟女方姓吗?让你们自己去安个子宫代替女人挨刀生孩子吗?让孩子叫女方的父母为爷爷奶奶吗?让女方的父母跟你们住吗?让女方的父母成为你的义务吗?你们有问过自己自私还是不自私吗?
         在这里,我从来看不见尊重女性,女士优先,为女士让座插队的优良作风,倒是能看见处处都有古代的“一妻多妾”,“贞节牌坊”等可笑的封建残余思想,就连郑州不过是因为妇女节增设了一个女性售票窗口,都招来各种质疑说“性别歧视”,呵呵。。。
         在这里,由于法律的欠缺和不可操作性,女性一旦踏入婚姻,她下半辈子的生活就完全寄托在了男方的良心上了;记得高中的时候一个女同学对我说过:一个女人要是遇上一个不好的男人,这辈子就完了,这句话,我记忆尤为深刻。
我常常看见媒体大肆报道残忍的活熊取胆,以及“李刚”之类的阶级矛盾,人们也对这些事情表示很愤怒,可我很少看见媒体大肆报道那些被净身出户的糟糠,那些刚生了小孩还在坐月子就被夫家打骂留下孩子赶出门去的妇女,那些被虐待被上环的妇女,那些底层妇女的生活,人们对此也没有那么多的愤慨和同情,甚至生活中所看见的那些被家暴的妇女,周围的人群都表现得很冷漠。在这里,女人还不如动物引人关注和同情。这里的人,真的是有同情心么?
         那些声称欧美女性可以有女权是因为她们和男人一样挣钱以及日本女性地位低下绝对服从丈夫的男人可以多普及一下知识,看看真相是什么,中国女性就业率是世界最高的,一个女人的地位不是由经济决定的,每个人都有自己的奉献,全职妈妈(这是一个在中国几乎消失的职业,基本都被有工作的女性兼职了)创造的经济价值并不低,比普通的上班族更辛苦,每天的工作都非常的枯燥乏味,全职太太或者全职先生,都应该被尊重,而不是因为他们是显性经济上的“弱者”就轻视漠视他们背后的不可或缺的隐形付出。
         在这个男性主导的社会,女性除非能有十分优秀的父亲,否则不管自己是多么的优秀,很多时候都不得不屈服于各种潜规则来获取社会资源,当国外有了希拉里,有了蔡英文,有了吉拉德,这里的女性,却依然只能在全国两会上充当花瓶还得以当花瓶为荣。甚至还有很多女性被剥夺教育权,人民日报的环球时报曾说过:一个男人受教育,获益的仅仅是他个人,一个女人受教育,获益的将是一个家庭和整个民族。
         中国女性是这个矛盾多多的社会中最弱势最底层的群体,她们和普通男性一样忍受着社会的总总不公,还要被男权社会的种种双重标准和万恶的婚姻风俗所压迫,不管是就业方面还是家庭方面,都备受歧视和压迫,夹缝中求生存,无论就业还是家庭都毫无保障和安全感可言,生活得比普通男性更不容易,她们是这个社会中最弱势最不受保护也最容易被抹黑,被发气被推卸责任却最不容易引起同情和关注的群体。
        民国时期女作家苏青就说过:在家里,“大部分丈夫是早已不把妻子当作十一等人看待了,相反地,他把她认作全智全能的上帝”。他要求她“有新学问兼有旧道德”、“能管内又能对外”、“合则留不合则去”、“妇德多带,妇食自备。女子背负着双重压力,到了21世纪了,中国的职业妇女依然处于这样尴尬劳累两难还不自知的境地。
        在这里,女性仅仅是看清了真相不愿意屈服于现状,不愿遵守男权社会的“规则”,就被围攻成偏激,自私,“受迫害妄想症”的女人。
        每个时代都需要一些“叛逆”的人,不管有多少人辱骂你,你都应该坚持自己的原则和理念,在一个越是不保护并压迫女性,不把女人当人看,用各种舆论双重标准和枷锁束缚你的地方,你越是要学会好强,学会“狠”,学会把自己当人,否则多半都只会落得一个悲惨的结局,还绝对不会有人来同情你。
         还好,中国目前还是有一些心态正常、懂得什么叫做道德、良心的男人的。
 P.S.:我非常奇怪新婚法后能得到一片叫好声,我更加奇怪这个社会是怎么了?怎么可以如此的冷血和没有道德?从来没有人想想这个法律会对那些为家庭操劳了一辈子的女性是多么的不公平,从来没有人想想一个被家庭压榨干后还被扫地出门连住处都没有的妇女是多么的可怜,也从来没有人想想这个法律对那些会步入婚姻的女性是多么的不公平。男人不会生育,所以不能理解生育的苦,男人少有做家务的,所以亦不能明白做家务的辛苦,男人更少有养育子女的,所以更觉得这是女人的专利,故女人不该叫苦。中国人绝大多数都已经被自私抹杀了良心,有极少数正常的人也会被围攻成“没出息”,“偏激”。
         实际上这法律并不算影响我,可我依然无法对这个法律不气愤,无法对那些叫好声不感到恶心。
         那些已婚的妇女,或许你们有的曾经向丈夫要求加名,或许你们当中还有许多是按揭买的房,你们的丈夫或许拒绝了,或许你们现在还年轻,孩子还小,所以你们觉得不得不为了孩子忍,或是因为照顾孩子辞了职或是耽误了事业,不得不因为经济忍,但是你们有没有想过,为了这样一个“不加名”,只想免费压榨你的劳动力的男人,操劳了一生,等孩子大了,不需要你了,再让你扫地出门,你们该何去何从?你们那时候还有退路吗?
         那些未婚的女性,如果没有好的男人,别把婚姻和孩子看成人生的必要,没有经历过的人不会明白家务和抚育孩子是多么的辛苦,男人有个孩子非常的容易,但女人要有个孩子,会付出太多牺牲太多,而且孩子和家庭会牵绊住你的一生,事业才是最重要的,这个社会不会认可隐形付出,不会认可养育子女的辛苦,不学会自己保护自己,没有人会在你被扫地出门后同情你。
         有些女性或许会觉得,相信男人才是最重要的,不过,十年前和十年后的你自己,是一个人么?那么十年前和十年后的他呢?
         还有人说这是为了打击骗婚,呵呵,我很奇怪中国究竟有多少个骗婚的女人?法律莫非是为少数人订而不是该为多数人订的?
         那些依然认为女儿要“娇养”,“守贞”,培养她成为一个“贤妻良母”的父母们,你们不觉得,在这样一个打死路人是死罪,打死妻子却只是虐待罪,绝对不认可家务和养育子女的牺牲付出,女性经济独立的同时还要承包家务和子女抚养教育,同时还得担心丈夫出轨,活得如此辛苦,男性却怎么放纵都可以的地方,这样培养女儿,是相当于让她将来“羊入虎口”,熬成黄脸婆后被扫地回你家么?
          对于过分自私没有责任和良心的男人,女人别太天真太善良的一味付出,要学会为自己考虑,因为你做了一个好妻子又怎么样?只会在你被压榨干后扫你出门,请做好自己的事业,孝敬好自己的父母,别去费尽心思讨好别人的父母,别为了一个不值得的男人束缚在婚姻里,学会对各种洗脑的媒体和双重标准说“不”,至于那些隐形付出和生育,谁不尊重这种劳动和付出,让谁做去吧。
         在这里,每一个成功男人的背后都有一个贤惠的伟大的妻子,可惜最后男人成功了,很少有人会觉得这里有妻子的功劳,连媒体都堂而皇之的在老夫少妻婚姻稳定的新闻最后一段里说丈夫的成功与妻子的付出毫无关系,妻子不该共享丈夫的成功果实。现实是最终这个伟大的妻子只会被另一个甚至好几个美丽的妻子所代替,然后还会因为新婚法而净身出户,孩子都没有你的份。再往近点说,80后很多男人在为付首付奋斗,妻子则帮忙还贷,可到最后房子跟妻子一毛钱关系都没有,只有一个大概一辈子都摆脱不了的“债权”。
         那些说要是是真心跟丈夫一辈子的,还需要加什么名的男人,既然是真心要过一辈子,那给女方加名又有什么不对不可以了?你自己全额买的房,不一直都是你自己的么?以前最初的时候婚姻法也只是规定八年后才是共同财产,8年,8年都已育有子女,8年都不能证明你的妻子对你的付出么?8年都不能给你妻子有所补偿么?
       中国自古以来就是向往强权,向往金钱,崇尚厚黑,擅于欺压束缚女性,而女性作为弱者就是该死、活该被压榨。中国男人也不可避免的受到这些“传统”的影响,精神上早就病了,且越是弱势的男人,反而大多越喜欢把女人踩在脚底下,中国男人都被自己的母亲和妻子宠坏了,根本不明白什么叫做责任和爱,只懂得把社会和ZF的过错往女人身上推,真正意义上的男人已经非常少见了。
         这部法律,成功的离间了夫妻间的感情,成功的让不管是普通男性还是上层男性都可以等妻子老了无用了随意踢出去换新的,成功的转嫁了社会的主要矛盾,当再弱势的男人,在家里都有一个比他更弱势的女人可以随意欺压剥削后,阶级制度和社会就都稳定了。
        在欧美等国家,女性不婚或是晚婚,当单身妈妈没有人会去说道她们,而且国外也曾调查发现单身母亲带大的孩子和双亲家庭带大的孩子心理没有明显差异,单身妈妈的孩子成长的好坏只和母亲的学历,经济能力等关系比较大。
         中国,别再打压剩女,请开放单身生育吧!
         媒体,也请多点女性员工,多点公平视角的文章,少点男性“刻意”的话语和报道了吧!
 我希望以后我的孩子不用再当中国人,因为少有像这里这么压制女人,却极力降低男性出轨成本,男性享有高高在上的性别特权的国家,我更不希望他在这样一个道德沦丧的环境中长大,成为一个离婚的时候对相对弱势的一方幸灾乐祸的说可以让你净身出户了的人,一个能够让为他生儿育女的发妻净身出户的孩子,我自己都怕。
【本文部分论据摘自网络文章《什么是真正的男女平等--兼论中国和北韩式男女伪平等》以及网络。】
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